Wednesday, January 12, 2011

sanjay has left a new comment on your post "#1 , FULL TEXTS OF NITI SATAKAM AND VAIRAGYA SATAK...":

sir ,first of all accept my heartiest
warm wishes on this contribution.i believe i can change myself if i apply 5% of Bhartrihari slokas.

Thank you for your appreciation of Bhartuhari, a poet who was sent into oblivion by pandas.
One word of caution, when you take up implementation
We live in a capitalist commercialised world full of pulls and temptations. We have to adopt a sort of via media approach i.e. middle path. Buddha too supported the middle path. Jainism called for a samyak drukpatham.

Samyak drukpatham or middle path or whatever we may call our practical approach, we cannot go to extremities. This type of extremism we find in Christianity and Islam. We cannot be cats on the wall, at the same time interpreting ethics to suit our convenience and pleasure.

Our conscience can be our best guide. It is like a mirror. We cannot cheat the mirror of our conscience. Our conscience, unless it is hardened by the exigencies of capitalism, alerts us, whenever we deviate from the reasonably middle practical right path. We can compare ethical living to driving a tractor in a paddy field , just before transplantation.

This caution has become necessary, because we do not live in caves. We may have to stay in New York or Los Angeles one day, and at Gottumukkala or Rampur on some other day. We should also keep in mind that we live amidst human vultures.

The adverbs of time and place dictate our behaviors.

Tuesday, February 19, 2008


CHARLES LAMB'S DESCRIPTION OF A POOR MAN AND HIS CHILDREN SOURCE: THE WORKS OF CHARLES AND MARY LAMB, VOLUME 2 "... But look at the countenance of the poor wives who follow and persecute their good man to the door of the public house, which he is about to enter, when something like shame would restrain him, if stronger misery did not induce him to pass the threshold. That face, ground by want, in which every cheerful, every conversable lineament has been long effaced by misery,--is that a face to stay at home with? is it more a woman, or a wild cat? alas! it is the face of the wife of his youth, that once smiled upon him. It can smile no longer. What comforts can it share? what burthens can it lighten? Oh, 'tis a fine thing to talk of the humble meal shared together! But what if there be no bread in the cupboard? The innocent prattle of his children takes out the sting of a man's poverty. But the children of the very poor do not prattle. It is none of the least frightful features in that condition, that there is no childishness in its dwellings. Poor people, said a sensible old nurse to us once, do not bring up their children; they drag them up. ..." BLOGGER'S VIEW There is a proverb in Telugu language which on translation reads as under: What 'Sun' cannot see, a poet sees everywhere. (Implication: A poet can penetrate through dark recesses of human mind, which the Sun's rays cannot penetrate through. The poet is omniscient). Won't you agree?

diinaa diina mukhaau sadaiva s`is`ukair aakrisht`a jiirn`aambara aa
kros`adbhau kshudhitair niranna vidhuraa dris`yaa na ceed geehinii .
yaacgnaa bhamga bhayeena gadgada gala trut`yad viliinaaksharam
ko deehii iti vadeet sva dagdha jat`harasyaarthee manasvii pumaan .21

Why should a man with self respect beg? When he entreats for something, his voice choaks with fear of failure/refusal by donor. His words become broken. Yet he says 'Pl. give ... etc.'. The poet explains the compelling circumstances. When a person sees his starving and sunken faced wife clad in a torn saree being chased by his hungry children seeking food, he cannot but go for a charity support. This is a masterpiece from the poet. He clearly recognises that the wisest person is driven to a pitiable state by hunger in the family.

Monday, July 10, 2006


PRONUNCIATION TABLEPronunciation is essentially phonetic throughout the verses.
CHAPTER 1 PRAYER The poet prays the dimensionless God. This is not worship of idols, for which India is famous.
muurkha paddhati
How fools behave! How they fail to understand the world, and how the world finds it difficult to understand the fools
CHAPTER 3WAYS OF SCHOLARS vidvat paddhati The scholars try to live gracefully.
CHAPTER 4WAYS OF SELF RESPECT AND VALOR maana s`aurya paddhatiPersons of self respect and grace do not stoop down to menial levels just for the sake of survival.
artha paddhati
The entire world revolves around money. Earn money! Persons without money will be like living corpses.
durjana paddhati
The poet lists out the qualities of rascals and how to live with them.
CHAPTER 7WAYS OF GENTLEMENsujana paddhatiThe poet lists out the natural qualities of virtuous persons.
paroopakaara paddhati
In the 6th and 7th Centuries India, there was great emphasis on helping others. It is not just charity. It is an inherent characteristic in majority of people. Children are taught from infancy.
dhairya paddhati
How the courageous persons live their lives in full, even in trying circumstances.
daiva paddhati
The poet discusses the ways of God and the imponderables, invisibles.
CHAPTER 11WAYS OF ACTIONS AND THEIR CONSEQUENCESkarma paddhatiThe poet believes in determinism, rebirths, and the carrying forward of virtues and sins over series of births. At a time when science was not developed to optimum levels and when there were hundreds of events and forces beyond the control of man such as epidemics, fires, droughts and floods, quakes and wild animals, this fatalistic approach is understandable. From the 7th Century, the situation further worsened and reached rock bottom when Muslims started invading India from the North West and ransacking the villages brutally. This Bhartruhari did not witness.

aa - long A as in ant, bat, cat.
c - as in chalk, chat (without aspirate). The sound of k has been
d` - Retroflex 'd' as in dog, donkey, door.
ee - long e, as in bake, care, dare, fare.
ii - long i, as in beat, cheat, deal, eel, feel, heal.
l` - heavy l.
n` - heavy n.
oo - Long o, as in goat, coat, note.
s` - as in sack, salary, sand.
t` - retroflex t, as in tap, ten, tin, ton, tune.
uu - long u as in school, pool, tool.
Every effort has been made to maintain the phonetic spelling.


Bhartruhari, who?
Bhartruhari was a poet.
== from India
== 5th Century A.D.
== Language: Sanskrit poet.
What is Niti Satakam?
S`atakam is a book of 100 verses. (satam = centum – Indo European root). Niiti is Ethics.
What was Bhartruhari's original occupation?
He was king turned monk cum poet.
Was Bhartruhari religious or secular?
In 5th C. Islam was not born. Christianity did not enter North India.
== Bhartruhari looks religious. But secular.


to that God who is beyond dimensions of direction and time;
an embodiment of pure intellect;
can be understood only through one's own self effort and experience;
brilliant and peaceful.

dik kaalaad(i)y an avacchinna ananta cin maatra muurtaye
sva anubhuuty eeka maanaaya namah s`aantaaya teejase!
dik = directions such as East, West, North and South; kaala = time; adi = etc.
anavacchinna = beyond; ananta = infinite; cin maatra muutraye = to the embodiment of pure intellect; sva = self; anubhuuti = experience; eeka = only; maanaaya = can be understood; namah = salutations; saantaaya = to the peaceful; teejase = brilliant.

CHAPTER 2: WAYS OF A FOOL (muurkha paddhati)

adhigata paramaarthaan pashooitaan maavamhsthaas
trusham iva laghu lakshmiir naiva taan shrushaddhi
abhinava mada lekhaa s`yaama gan`ooa sthalaanaam
na bhavati bisatantur varashaam varashaanaam

It is easy to explain an ignorant person. Easier to explain a scholar. Even the creator cannot explain to a person of a little knowledge suffering from pride.

agnaha sukham aaraadhyah
sukhataram aaraadhyate vis`eeshagnah
gnaana lava durvidagadha
brahma api tu na ramjayati
agnah = ignorant; sukham = easy; aaradhyah = to explain, satisfy and worship; sukhataram = more comfortable; vis`eeshagnah = scholar; gnaana = knowledge; lava = a little; durvidaghah = burning with pride; brahma = creator; api = also, even;
na = not ramjayati = explain, please, satisfy.
ambhojinii vana vihaara vilaasam eva
mamsasya hanti nitarah kupito vidhaataa
na tv asya dugdha jala bheda vidhau prasiddhah
vaidagdhii kiirtim apahartum asau samarthaha

asanto naabhyarthyaam suhrud api
na yaacyam krus`a dhanam
priyaa nyaayyaa vruttir malinam
asubhamge'py asukaram
vipady uccau stheeyam padam
anuvidheyam ca mhataam
satam kenoddisht`am vishamam
asidhaaraa vratam idam

vidvat paddhati

Bhartruhari laments that 1. scholars were suffering from envy. 2. Kings were suffering from pride 3. Ignorant people were suffering from other problems and busy and
hence that all his ethical sayings were dying within himself.

booddhaaro matsara grastaah
prabhavaha smaya duush`itaah
aboodhoo (u)pahataha ca anye
jiirshsham amgee subhaashitam
booddhaaro = well versed; matsara = envy; grastaah = caught by; prabhavaha = kings; smaya duushitaaha = polluted by pride; aboodhoo = Not well read; upahataaha = sufferers; ca = filler for meter; anye = other; jiirshsham = get digested (lost); amgee = within the body; subhaashitam = good words.

Fool’s mind: We can
bring out a gem held in the mouth of a crocodile.
cross an ocean of great waves (like a Bermuda Triangle).
can wear an angry cobra on our head like a jewel.
But we cannot understand the mind of a fool.

prashya mashim uddharen makara vaktra dhsht`raantaraat
samudram api santaret pracalad uurmi maalaakulam
bhujamgam api kopith s`irasi pushpavad dhaarayet
na tu pratinivisht`a muurkha jana cittam aaraadhayet
man`im = a gem (in objective case); uddharen = retrieve; makara = crocodile; vaktra = mouth; antaraat = inside; samudram = sea; api = also; santaret = cross; pracalad = tumultous; uurmi = waves; maalakulam = in fierce gyrations; bhujamgam = snake; kopith = angry; s`irasi = on the head; pushpavad = like a flower; dhaarayet = wear; na = not; tu = additive for poetic meter; pratinivishoa = .... ; muurkha = fool; jana = people; cittam = mind; aaraadhayeet = Understand, appreciate.
--- ---- ---- ----
Fool’s mind: We can extract oil from a fistful of sand, by effort;
quench our thirst by drinking water from a mirage;
fetch horn of a rabbit by exploring the earth;
but cannot appreciate and understand a knave's mind.

labheta sikataasu tailam api yatnataha piiooayan
pibec ca mrugatrushshikaasu salilaha pipaasa arditah
kvacid api paryat`an s`as`a vishaasham aasaadayet
na tu pratinivisht`a muurkha cittam aaraadhayet.
labheta = can get, extract; sikataasu = from sand; tailam = oil; api = even, also; yatnataha = by effort; pibeca = can drink; mrugatrushshikaasu = from a mirage; salilaha = water; pipasa = thirst; arditaha suffering from; kvacid = somewhere and sometime; paryat`an = explore and search by moving; s`as`a = rabbit; vishaasham = horn; aasaadayet = get; na = not; tu = filler for meter; pratinivinsha = .. ; muurkha = fool's; cittam = mind; aaraadhayet = appreciate and understand.

He is equal to a person who:
1. wants to tie down an elephant using stems of a lotus;
2. cut a diamond using delicate flowers;
3. convert all the salty water of the seas into sweet water.

vyaal`am baala mrushaala tantubhir asau roddhuh samujjrumbhate
chettuh vajra mashih s`iriish`a kusuma praantena sannahyati
maadhuryha madhu bindunaa racayituh ksh`aaraamudher iihate
muurkhasya pratineetu michchati balaat suuktaih sudhaa syandibhihi.

---- ---- ---- ---
The creator desired to help the ignoramuses, to have control on themselves and hide their ignorance. Hence he created the shelter of
silence, particularly in an assembly of scholars.

svaayattam ekaanta hitam vidhaatraa
vinirmitam chaadanam agnaataayaaha
vis`eshatah sarva vidah samaaje
vibhuushashaha maunam apanditaanaam
---- ---- ---- ---
The poet stresses the importance of humility.
Ignoramus’s repentance:
He laments: When I knew a little, I behaved like an elephant in rut. I behaved as though I was omniscient. After exposure to and friendship with great scholars, I realised that I knew very little. All my pride fell like fever. Now, I feel more comfortable.

yadaa kimcidgnooham gaja iva madaandhaha samabhavam
tadaa sarvagnoosmi ity abhavad avaliptam mama manaha
yadaa kimcit kimcid budhajana sakaas`aad avagatam
tadaa muurkho'smi iti jvara iva madoo mee vyapagataha

The poet compares a knave person to a dog. The knave does not know manners and respect. The dog in possession of a bone while chewing it refuses to see and recognise even the Lord of Heaven even if he presents himself before it. The poet describes the bone: full of worms, blood, oozing obnoxious smell, abominable and despicable.

krumi kula citth laalaa klinnaha vigandhi jugupsitaha
nirupama ras priityaa khaadan nara asthi niraamisham
surapatim api s`vaa paars`vastaha vilokya na s`amkate
na hi gashayati kshudroo jantuhu parigraha phalgutaam
krumi kula citth = full of worms; laalaa klinnaha = full of blood; vigamdhi = smell less (or oozing out bad smell extracted meaning); jugupsitaha = abominable, despicable; priityaa = with like and relish; nara asthi = man's bone; niraamisham = devoid of flesh and meat; surapatim = the Lord of Heaven; api = even, also; paars`vastaha = standing beside; vilokya = see; na = not; s`amkate = ...; gashayati = will take into consideration; kshudroo = knave persons; jantuhu = animals; parigraha = what can be taken; phalgutaam = ....

The Ganga river started its downward journey of its self pollution.
1. From heavens to the head of S`hiva;
2. From Shiva's head to the Himalayas.
3. From Himalayas to the earth.
4. From the earth to the Seas.
5. From the sea to the world beneath (pataalam).

s`iraha s`aarvaha svargaat pas`upati s`irastaha kshitidharaha
mahiidharaad uttumgaad avanim avanes` caapi jaladhim
adho'dho gamgeyaha padam upagata astokam
athava aviveka bhrasht`haha bhavati vinipaataha s`atamukhaha

Problem - Solution
1. Fire can be extinguished using water.
2. Scorching son can be overcome using umbrella.
3. Berserk elephant can be regulated using a goad (pointed needle).
4. Cows, donkeys can be driven using stick.
5. Diseases can be mitigated using medicine
6. Poisons, toxins can be fought with charms, incantation, spell.
But there is no solution for the stupidity of a fool.

s`akyo vaarayituh jalena huta bhuk cchatreen`ha suuryaatapo
naagendro nis`itaamkus`ena samado damd`eena go gardabhau
vyaadhir bheshaja samgrhais` ca vividhair mantra prayogair vishh
sarvasyaushadham asti s`aastra vihith muurkhasya nasty aush`adhim

sahitya samgiita kalaa vihiinaha
saakshaat pas`uau puccha vishaasha hiinah
trusheeh na khaadann api jiivamaanas
tad bhaaga dheyh paramh pas`uunaam

BEAST in the form of a MAN
A person who does not have the following is a beast in the guise of a man.
1. education, knowledge and realisation 2. penance. 3. adherence to duty and ethics;
He is a burden to the earth.

yeshah na vidyaa na tapo na daanaha
gnaana s`iilaha na gneeyo na dharmah
te martya loke bhuvi bhaara bhuutaa
manush`ya ruupesha mrugaas` caranti

maana s`aurya paddhati

Lion’s behaviour:
Even if extremely hungry, lean by old age, having dilapidated life, facing a stage of hardships and is in danger,
A lion will long to split the forehead of an elephant and eat its content;
Why it does it consume dry grass?
Great people even in distress do not resort to unethical deeds.

kshut kshaamo api
jaraa krus`oo api
s`ithila praan`oo api
kasht`aha das`aam aapanno api
vipanna diidhitir api
praan`eshu nas`yatsv api
mattebhendra vibhinna kumbha
pis`ita graasaika baddha spruhaha
kim jiirn`ah trun`am atti maana
mhataam agresarah kesarii

---- ----- ----- ----
Lion and dog:
A dog satisfies immensely even if it gets a cow’s bone, dirty and with little meat.
A lion will not touch a fox even if it is ready at its feat.
People even if emaciated, expect results according to their capacities. A great man will not be happy with an ordinary outcome.

svalpa snaayu vasa avas`esha malimnirmaamsam apy asthi goau
s`vaa labdhvaa paritosham eti na tu tat tasya kshudhaa s`aantaye
simho jambukam amkam aagatam api tyaktvaa nihanti dvipam
sarvah krucchra gatoo api vaamchanti janaha sattvaanuruuph phalam

laamguula caalanam adhas` caran`aavapaatam
bhuumau nipatya vadanodara dars`anamca
s`vaa pimd`adasya kurute gaja pumgavas tu
dhiiram vilokayati caat`u s`atais` ca bhumkte.

Whom do people recall and remember?
In this dynamic world, people do not remember a dead person. They remember that person whose birth lifted his clan to great heights.

parivartini samsaare
mrutaha ko vaa na jaayate
sa jaato yena jaatena
yaati vams`aha samunnatim

Two alternatives for a flower:
1. adorn the hair plaits of women
2. wither on forest paths.

kusuma stavakasyeva
dvayii vruttir manasvinah
muurdhni vaa sarva lokasya
s`iiryate vana eva vaa

santanye'pi bruhaspati prabhrutayaha sambhaavitaaha pamcan`aaha
taan pratyeesha vis`eesha vikrama rucii rahur na vairaayate
dvaav eva grasate divaakara nis`aa praan`es`varau bhaaskarau
bhraataha parvan`i pas`ya daanava patihi s`iirsha avas`esha akrutau

The thousand headed serpent Aadis`eesha bears on his hood the entire Universe.
The great turtle Kuurma avataara carries the serpent on its back.
It drops the Universe in the ocean mercilessly for passing on to the great Hog: Varaha avataara.
The actions of great persons are beyond explanations and forms!

vahati bhuvana s`reen`iim s`eesha phan`aaa phalaka sthitaam
kamat`ha patinaa madhye prusht`am sadaa sa ca dhaaryate
tam api kurute krood`a adhiinam payodhir anaadaraad
ahaha mahataam nih siimaa nas`caritra vibhuutayaha.

varam paksha uccheedaha samadamaghavanmukta kulin`a
prhaarair udgacchad bahula dahanoodgaara gurubhihi
tushaaraadreeh suunoor ahaha pitari klees`a vivas`ee
na caasau sampaataha payasi payasaha patyur ucitaha

Lion’s calf:
A lion’s calf even if infant, breaks open the forehead of an elephant. By nature, for capabilities, age has no relationship.

simhaha s`is`ur api nipatati
mada malina kapoola bhittishu gajeeshu
prakrutir iyam sattvavataam
na khalu vayas tejasaam hetuhu.

Artha paddhati

The poet deplores the human greed for money. The poet laments that humans crave for money even if there is a catastrophe. He gives examples.
1. Let the entire country, human race fall in an abyss of condemnation to hell.
2. Let all the noble qualities cave in and collapse to even lower levels.
3. Let character fall from their higher cliffs.
4. Let the clan’s prestige be reduced to ashes.
5. Let valour be struck by lightning.
If there is wealth, even if a person possesses all other things, they will not be as worth as straw.

jaatir yaatu rasaatalam
guna` gan`ais tatra api adho gacchataat
s`iilam s`aila tat`aat patatva
abhijanas samdahyataha vahninaa
s`aurye vairin`ii vajram aas`u nipatat
arthoo astu naha keevalam
yeen aikeena vinaa gun`as
trun`a lava praayaas samastaa imee!

Money, a must:
The 21st Century moral is: Earn money somehow.
Did the seventh Century AD differ?
No. At least in India. May be same in Europe also.
The poet says: "Earn money somehow! The root of the world is money. I do not know the difference between a dead person
and an impoverished man."
What did the world learn in 14 Centuries? Infinitely!/nothing!

dhanam arjaya kaakutsa
dhana muulam idam jagat
antaraan naabhijaanaami
nirdhanasya mrutasya ca
dhanam = money; aarjaya = earn; kaakutsa = Oh person belonging to kakutsa clan (listener disciple); dhana muulam = Based on money; idam = this; jagat = world; antaraan = difference; na = no (Both have Indo European root); abhi jaanaami = I do not know; nirdhanasya = poorman mrutasya = dead person; ca = an additive for completing the poetic meter, no special meaning


taaniindriyaan`i avikalaani tad eva naama
saa buddhir apratihataa vacam tad eva
arthon`eena virahitaha purushaha kshan`eena
so api anya eeva bhavatiiti vicitram etat

The moneyed man is respectable man. He is the learned man. He is the knowledgeable man. He is the man of great character. He is the orator. He is visit worthy. All the qualities take shelter at gold.

yasya = whose. asti = is, are; vitta = wealth (Indo European similarity); sa = he; naraha = man; kuliinaha = aristocrat; panditah = scholar; s`rutavan = knowledgeable man in scriptures; gunee = man with good qualities; sarve = all; gunaah = All the qualities; kaamcanam = gold; aas`rayanti = live in, take refuge with, take shelter at.
Yasya asti vitth sa narah kuliinah
sa pashooitah sa s`rutavaan gushshajah
sa eva vaktaa sa ca dars`aniiyah
sarve guneeh kaamcanam aas`rayanti

A king perishes owing to a wicked minister.
An ascetic fails owing to attachments.
A son gets spoiled by lenience.
A priest falls owing to lack of studies.
A caste/clan/family loses face owing to a bad daughter.
Character gets polluted by friendship with knave.
Intellect is lost by liquor.
Agriculture suffers by lack of attention.
Friendship is lost when one person emigrates from the place.
Friendship is lost when one person takes refuge (shelter) with the friend.
Money is lost by recklessness.
Sacrifice is lost by imprudence and bad conduct.

daurmantryaan nrupatir vinas`yati yatau samgaat suto laalanaat
viproo anadhyayanaat kulaha kutanayaat chiilam khaloo paasanaat
hriir madyaad anavekshan`aad api krushau snehaha pravaasa as`rayaan
maitrii ca apran`ayaat samruddhir anayaat tyaaga pramaadaad dhanam

Has three fates and states: 1. Charity and gift; 2. Consumption and enjoyment. 3. Destruction.
If a person neither gives nor consumes, sends the money to the third fate.

daanam bhogo naas`as tisro
gatayoo bhavanti vittasya
yo na dadaati na bhumkte
tasya trutiiyaa gatir bhavati

Here, the poet shows worldly wisdom. He lists the techniques to motive people and make things favourable.
1. A gem – by polishing;
2. A soldier – by victory in a battle;
3. An elephant – Retardation of rut;
4. A river – by sand dunes in moon light;
5. moon – by phases of growth and wane;
6. A youthful woman – by coition;
7. Supplicants – by gifts.

man`ihi s`aan`oolliid`haha samara vijayii heeti dalitoo
mada kshiin`oo naagaha s`aradi saritaha s`yaana pulinaaha
kalaa s`eshas` chandraha surata mruditaa baala vanitaa
tan nimnaa s`obhante galita vibhavaas` ca arthishu varaaha

Here, the poet shows his discrimination and evaluation on the human nature.
1. When a person is poor, he treats even a seed of grain as of great value.
2. When he becomes rich, the whole Universe appears like a straw.
3. Depending on the time, place and circumstances, the importance and value of things gain and lose their value.

parikshiin`aha kas`cit
spruhayati yavaanaam prasrutayee
sa pas`caat sampuurn`aha
kalayati dharitriim trun`a samaam
atas` caan aika antyaad
guru laghutayaa artheeshu dhaninaam
avasthaa vastuuni
prathayati ca samkoocayati ca!

King,earth, calf, cow:
A king should look after his kingdom like a calf. Then like a divine tree, the earth will feed him with infinite variety of fruits.

raajan dudhukshasi yadi kshiti dhenum etaam tenaadya vatsam iva lokam amum pushaan`a
tasmims` ca samyag anis`am pariposhyamaan`ee
naanaa phalaihi phalati kalpalata iva bhuumihi.

King’s fickle and unreliable ways:
Truth and falsehood. Softspokenness and rudeness. Compassion and thirst for blood. Charitable and Stingy. Miserly and extravagant.
A king, like a prostitute is fickle.

Satyaanrutaa ca parushaa priya vaadinii ca
hihsraa dayaalur api caarthaparaa vadaanyaa
nitya vyayaa pracura nitya dhanaagamaa ca
vaaraamganeva nrupa niitir aneka ruupaa

Take refuge with those who have:
1. Command 2. Reputation 3. Protecting priests 4. Charity 5. Luxury 6. Looking after friends.
Otherwise it will be better to approach a stone.

aagnaa kiirtihi paalam brahman`aanam
daanam bhoogoo, mitra samrakshan`am ca
yeshaam eete shad`gun`aa na pravruttaaha
koo arthas teeshaam paarthivo opaas`rayeesha

The poet choses a fatalistic outlook:
1. Even if a well has a treasure of water, we can take a few pots of water.
2. A person’s fate is written on his forehead. He gets whatever is destined for him, even if he stays in a desert.
3. Knowing this, an intrepid person does not waste his life in mean preoccupations.

yad dhaatraa nija phaala pat`t`a likhitham
stookam mahad vaa dhanam
tat praapnooti marusthalee api
nitaraam merau ca naa too adhikam
tad dhiiro bhava vittavatsu krupan`aam
vruttim vruthaa maa kruthaaha
kuupe pas`ya payoo nidhaav api
ghat`oo gruhn`aati tulyam jalam

tvam eva caatakaadhaaro'
siiti kesham na gocarah
kim ambhoda varaasmaakam
kaarpan1yooktam pratiikshase

ree ree! caataka saavadhaana manasaa mitra kshashh s`ruuyataam
ambhodaa bhavo vasanti gagane sarvee api naitaadrus`aam
kecid vrusht`ibhir aardrayanti vasudham garjanti kecid vruthaa
yam yam pas`yasi tasya tasya puratoo maa bruuhi diimvacam.

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WAYS OF RASCALS (durjana paddhati)

Knave’s inherent nature:
1. Lack of compassion; 2. Fight without reason; 3. Covets others’ money, women; 4. Intolerance towards gentle persons and relatives.

akarun`atvam; akaaran`a vigrhaha
paradhanee parayoshiti ca spruhaa
sujana bandhujaneshva asahishn`utaa
prakruti siddham idam hi duraatmanaam

Knave is condemnable, even if he is well decorated with education. A serpent even if adorned with gems, continues to be fierce and frightening.

durjanah parihartavyo
vidyaya alamkrutoo api san
man`iinaa bhuushitam sarpaha
kim asau na bhayamkaraha.

Here, the poet shows good observative skills. He lists out how a rascal assesses and treats good persons.
1. Treats a modest person as a dullard.
2. “ a pious person as a hypocrite.
3. “ clean person as dress-crazy.
4. “ a warrior as cruel person.
5. “ a self-realised introvert ascetic as an imbecile.
6. “ a moderate sweet conversationist as a humble pie.
7. “ an assertive and strong person as conceitful.
8. “ a good orator as talkative chatterer.

jaadyam hriimati gan`yate
vrata s`ucau dambhaha
s`ucau kaitavam
s`uure nirghrun`ataa
munau vimatitaa
dainyam priyaalaapini
tejasvini avaliptataa
mukharataa vaktavya
as`aktihi sthire
tat ko naama gun`ee bhaveet
sa gun`iinaam yoo durjanair na amkitaha

If we have we do not need
… … … … … … … … … … … …
Covetousness other bad qualities
Miserliness sins
Truth penance
Clean mind sacred bath
Amity physical strength
Divinity ornaments

lobhas` ceed agun`eena kim
pis`unataa yadi asti kim paatakau
satyam ceet tapasaa ca kim
s`uci manoo yadi asti tiirtheena kim
saujanyam yadi kim baleena
mahimaa yadi asti kim mand`anaihi
sad vidyaa yadi kim dhanair
apayas`oo yadi asti kim mrutyunaa

Seven painful thorns:
1. Faded dust-ridden moon; 2. Wife past youth; 3. Falling and greying hair; 4. Ugly and Uneducated face. 5. Covetous and Greedy king. 6. Difficulties for virtuous persons; 7. Wicked and faction ridden vassals.

s`as`ii divasa dhuusaro galita yauvanaa kaaminii
saro vigata vaarijam mukham anaksharam svaakruteau
prabhur dhana paraayan`aam satata durgatam sajjano
nrupaamgan`aam gatam khalo manasi sapta s`alyaani mee!

The poet makes a worldly observation of kings.
1. Kings, when angry, do not distinguish between well-wishers and traitors.
2. The poet uses a metaphor: Ascetics performing sacrifices pour clarified butter and small pieces of wood in the fire. This is for the benefit of and to satiate the fire God. But the fire God will not hesitate to burn their hands, if accidentally or deliberately, they touch the fire.

na kas`cic can`d`a kopaanaam
aatmiiyo naama bhuubhujaam
hotaaram api juhvaanaam
sprusht`oo dahati paavakaha

This is a great piece of worldly observation from the poet. Though he refers to the behaviour of kings, it applies to all bosses, employers, masters, and superiors. They treat a servant as
1. dud and dumb, if he does not talk much.
2. Chaterer, if he talks freely and frankly.
3. Disobedient, if he stays closer, ready to take orders.
4. Inefficient, if he maintains a distance.
5. Timid, if he bears and endures.
6. Person of a bad descendence, if he lacks endurance.
It is difficult to satisfy the employer in carrying out occupations of “service”. Even the greatest ascetics cannot perform to perfection.

maunomuukah pravacana pat`ur baat`ulo jalpako vaa
dhrusht`ah paars`ve vasati ca sadaa duuratas` caapragalbhah
kshaantyaa bhiirur yadi na shate praayas`o naabhijaatah
sevaadharmah parama ghano yoginaam apy agamyah

udbhaasitaakhila khalasya vis`rumkhalasya
praag jaata vistruta nijaadhama karma vrutteau
daivaad avaapta vibhavasya gusha dvisho'sya
niicasya gocara gatau sukham aapyate

The poet discusses two types of friendship.
1. Friendship between two good persons.
2. “ between two rascals.
Friendship between two good persons starts on a small scale like a shadow in the midday which is very short and stretches to full length by dusk.
Friendship between two bad persons (or one good person and another bad person) starts ostentatiously and fails at the end, like a shadow in the morning which is very long and becomes negligible by midday.

aarambha gurvii kshayieeii kramesha
laghvii puraa vruddhimatii ca pas`caat
dinasya puurvaardha paraardha bhinnaa
chaayeva maitrii khala saj janaanaam
mruga miina sajjanaanah trusha jala santosha vihita vruttiinaam
lubdhaka dhiivara pis`unaa nishkaarasha vairieeo jagati

Sujana paddhati

Salute to him, in whom the following qualities reside:
Longing to befriend good persons;
Appreciation of good qualities of others;
Humility before the preceptor;
Addiction to learn;
Desire for one’s own wife;
Fear of illfamy;
Devotion to the Lord;
Capability to control oneself (self control)
Alienation from rascals

vaamchaa sajjana samgatau
para gun`ee priitir
gurau namrataa
vidyaayaam vyasanam
sva yoshiti ratir
looka apavaadaad bhayam
bhaktihi s`uulini
s`aktir aatma damane
samsarga muktihi khale
yeshv eete nivasanti
nirmala gun`aas
teebhyo narebhyoe namaha

Following are natural for great persons:--
Courage when in danger;
Tolerance when growing and wealthy;
Oratorial power in an Assembly;
Valour in battle;
Inclination for fame;
Addiction to learning (particularly scriptures);

vipadi dhairyam
atha abhyudaye kshamaa
sadasi vaakya pat`utaa
yudhi vikramam
yas`asi ca abhirucir
vyasanam s`rutau
prakruti siddham idam hi mhaatmanaam

Great Challenges and most difficult convictions and practices = WALKING ON A SWORD:
1. Giving charities and keeping them secret;
2. Doing good and remaining silent;
3. Open praise in assemblies of good done by others;
4. Not losing balance even when rich;
5. Lack of interest in gossip stories of others;

pradaanam pracchanam
gruham upagate sambhrama vidhii
priyam krutvaa maunam,
sadasi kathanam ca api upyupakruteehe
anutseeko lakshmyaam
anabhibhava gandhaaha para kathaaha
sataam kenoddisht`am vishamam asidhaaraa vratam idam

Natural jewels to good persons, even when they are devoid of wealth:
1. Praising the sacrifices made by others;
2. Loving to kneel down at the feet of the preceptor;
3. Having truth always on the lips;
4. Succeeding on one’s own strength;
5. Working with great prowess;
6. Clean heart;
7. Loving to listen to and read scriptures;

karee s`laaghyas tyaagaha
s`irasi guru paada pran`ayitaa
mukhee satyaa vaan`ii
vijayi bhujayoor
viiryam atulam
hrudi svacchaa vruttihi
s`rutim adhigatham ca s`ravan`ayooho
vinaa api ais`varyeen`a
prakruti mahataam mamd`anam idam

Balance of mind of great persons:
1. As delicate as lotus even when wealthy enough to be harsh;
2. As hard as a granite rock when facing dangers and difficulties (they do not lose their courage).

sampatsu mahataam cittam
bhaveet utpala komalam
aapatsu ca mahaa s`aila
s`ilaa samghaata karkas`am

Fate of a drop of water / Fate of an individual
A drop of water when it
1. falls on a hot metal, it gets lost unnoticed. A person who befriends a rascal also gets lost without his name being heard by anybody;
2. falls on a lotus leaf, shines like a pearl; A person befriending a mediocre, can be a show, but will not achieve anything worthwhile.
3. falls in a pearl’s womb, becomes a pearl. A person befriending a good person, can himself become an achiever.

santaptaayasi samsthitasya payaso naamaapi na s`ruuyatee
muktaakaar atayaa tad eeva nalinii patra sthitam raajate
amtah saagara s`ukti madhya patitam tan mauktikam jaayate
praayeen`aam aadhama madhyam ottama gun`aam samsargatoo jaayate

Only the blessed will get all these three:
1. Loving parents and children;
2. Loving wife;
3. Equally amiable friends both in comforts and hardships.

yah priin`ayeet sucaritaih pitaram sa putro
yad bhartur eeva hitam icchati tat kal`atram
tan mitram aapadi sukhee ca sama kriyam yad
eetat trayam jagati pun`ya krutoo labhantee

A balanced person is indifferent to both alternatives or extremes:
1. Only one God, be it S`iva or Kees`ava;
2. Only one friend, be it king or ascetic;
3. Only one dwelling, be it in the town or in the forest.
Comment: It does not mean that the writer wants only two Gods or is intolerant to other religions. His idea is, God can be called by any number of names. At that time Christianity was not prevalent in North India. Mohammed was not yet born.

eko deevaha kes`avo vaa s`ivo vaa
hi ekam mitram bhuupatir vaa yatir vaa
eko vaasam pattan`ee vaa vanee vaa
hi ekaa bhaaryaa sundarii vaa darii vaa

namratvee nonnamantaha
para gun`a kathanaihi
svaan gun`aan khyaapayantaha
svaarthaan sampaadayantoo api
vitata pruthutaraarambha
yatnaaha paraarthe
kshaantyaivaakshepa ruukshaakshara mukhara mukhaan durjanaan duhkhayamtaha
santaha saas`carya caryaa jagati
bahu mataaha kasya na abhyarcaniiyaaha


(Paroopakaara paddhati)

CHARACTER OF good samaritans
Trees bearing heavy load of fruits bend slightly. The great clouds full of water maintain a distance. In spite of abundance and riches, virtuous persons work with modesty and unpretentiousness. |They are not flamboyant. By their very nature, they are good samaritans.

bhavanti namraas taravaha phaloodgamair
navaambu bhir duura avalambino ghanaaha
anuddhataaha sat purushaah samruddhibhihi
svabhaava esha paropakaarishaam
bhavanti = will be; namraas = bend slightly, modest; taravaha = trees; phaloodgamair = In spite of having fruits; navaambu bhir = in spite of having fresh water; duura = distance; avalambino = maintain; ghanaaha = clouds; anuddhataaha = Not flamboyant persons; satpurushaah = virtuous persons; samruddhibhihi = in spite of abundance; svabhaava eena = by nature; paroopa kaarisham = do gooders, persons who help others.

If a scholar who can teach the sciences to his disciples with beautiful words, creates great literature, lives with humility and yet remains poor, it is the fault of the king of his country. Even devoid of wealth, the poet/writer is like a God!
Simile: If a gem tester falters in his assessment and classifies a precious stone as of low value, it loses nothing. The king is compared to the gem tester.

S`aastr opaskruta s`abda sundara giraha s`ish`ya pradeya agamaa
vikhyaataaha kavayo vasanti vishaye yasya prabhor nirdhanaah
tajjaad`yam vasudhaadhip asya kavayas tv artham vina api is`varaaha
kut syaaha syuhu kupariiksh`akair mashayo yair jharataha paatitaaha.
S`aastras = sciences; upaskruta = explained by; s`abda = sounds; giraha = words; s`ishyaha disciples; vikhyaataaha = famous, renowned; kavayoo = poets; vasanti = live; vishaye = parts of kingdom; yasya = whose; vasudha = earth, world; adhipa = lord; vasudha adhipa = king; asya = of, 's; prabhor = king's; nirdhanaha = money less;
tat jaad`yam that disease; kut syaaha = it is how; ku pariikshakair = bad tester; mashayoo = gems;

It cannot be seen by a thief; Day and night provides comfort and strength;

hartur yaati na gocaraha kim s`am pushshaati yat sarvadaa'py
ardhibhyaha pratipaadya maanam anis`am praapnooti vruddhi paraam
kalpaantesh`v api na prayaati nidhanam vidyaakhyam antardhanam
yeshaha taan prati maanam ujjhata nrupaaha kas tahi saha spardhatee

Real beautifiers are not: necklaces shining like moon;
Baths with cosmetics and flowers;
Hair dressing and styles;
Only a purified language and speech adorns a person.
All other ornamentation will degenerate.

keyuuraan` na bhuush`ayanti purusham haaraa na candrojjvalaa
na snanam na vilepanam na kusumam na alamkrutaa muurdhajah
vaan`y ekaa samalamkaroti purusham yaa sanskrutaa dhaaryate
kshiiyante khalu bhuushashaan`anii satatam vaag bhuushan`am bhuushan`am

1. Enhances our beauty. 2. Hidden money. 3. Gives us comfort and luxury. 4. Gives us fame. 5. Teacher of the Teachers. 6. A close relative when we go abroads. 7. Goddess of goddesses. 8. Worshipped by kings. 9. Person devoid of education is like a beast.

vidyaa naama narasya ruupam adhikam
pracchanna guptha dhanam
vidyaa bhogakarii yas`ah sukhakarii
vidyaa guruun`am guruau
vidyaa bandhujano vides`a gamane
vidyaa paraa devataa
vidyaa raajasu puujyate
na hi dhanam vidyaa vihiinaha pas`uhu.

If we have we do not need
Endurance Protective cover
Anger Enemy
Co-legal heirs Fire
Good friend Medicines
Knave Snake
Education Money
Shame, bashfulness,
Modesty, humility Jewels and Ornaments
Poetic power Kingdom

ksha`aantis` cet kavacena kim;
kim aribhihi; krodho'sti ced dehinah
gnaatis` ced analena kim;
yadi suhrud divyaushadham kim phalam
kim sarpair yadi durjanaah;
kim dhanair vidyaa'navadyaa yadi
vriid`aa cet kim bhuushashn`au
sukavitaa yady asti raajyena kim

A virtuous person shows:
1. gifting and rewarding - to his own people
2. kindness - to sevants
3. valour - to knaves
4. affection - to good persons
5. tolerance - to kings
6. honesty - to scholars
7. endurance - to preceptors
8. love - to wives

daakshin`yam svajane
dayaa parijane
s`auryam sadaa durjane
priitihi saadhujane
nayo nrupa jane
vidvaj jane ca aarjavam
s`auryam s`atru janee
kshamaa guru janee
kaantaa jane dhrusht`ataa
ye ca ivam purushaah
kalaasu kus`alaas teshve eva loka sthitau.

Friendship with good persons:
Remedies disease; purifies language; shows path of greatness and honour; prevents from sinning; strengthens actions; brings fame.
There is nothing which friendship with good persons will not do.

jaad`yam dhiyoo harati
simcati vaaci satyam
maanonnatim dis`ati
paapam apaakaroti
ceetaha prasaadayati
dikshu tanooti kiirtihi
sat samgatihi kathaya kim na karooti pumsaam.

Great poets, by their works, have become great accomplishers. They have no fear of old age and death. They have a body of fame and reputation.

jayanti te sukrutino
rasa siddhaaha kaviis`varaaha
naasti teeshaam yas`ahkaaye
jaraa maran`ajam bhayam.

suunuau sac caritam
satii priyatamaa
svaamii prasaadonmukhaam
snighdam mitram
avamcakaha parijanoo
nauklees`a lees`am manah
aakaaro ruciram
sthiras` ca vibhavo
vidyaavadaath mukham
tusht`ee visht`apa
kasht`a haarieei harau
sampraapyate dehinaa

praan`aaghaataan nivruttau para dhana haranee shyamam satya vaakyam
kaale s`aktyaa pradaamyuvati jana kathaa muuka bhaavam pareeshaam
trushshaa srooto vibhamgo gurushu ca vinayam sarva bhuuta anukampaa
saamaanyam sarva s`aastreshv anuphata vidhau s`reyasaam esha panthaah

---- ----- ----- ----
This piece is optimistic and motivative.
The poet classifies task managers into three groups.
1. The timid, do not take up any task, aprehending hurdles.
2. The mediocre, retreat and abandon the task, if they encounter hindrances.
3. The achievers, do not stop if they face difficulties. Repeated obstructions, they overcome tireless and attain their goals.
4. Hence tirelessness and perseverence is the key.

praarabhyate na khalu
vighna bhayena niicaihi
praarabhya vighna vihataa
viramanti madhyaaha
vighnau punah punar api
praarabdham uttama janaa
na parityajanti

What are real jewels to humans?
1. Ears get decorated by listening to and reading scriptures and not by ear-rings.
2. Hands get decorated by charity and not by gold bangles.
3. Body shines by compassion and helping others and not through sandalwood.

s`rotram s`rutena iva
na kumd`alena
daaneena paan`ir
na tu kamkan`eena
vibhaati kaayaha karun`aa
na tu candaneena

Qualities of a good friend, as per great preceptors:
1. Prevents from doing evil deeds.
2. Plans and advises what is good.
3. Keeps secrets.
4. Publicises good qualities.
5. Befriends even during hardships.

paapaan nivaarayati
yojayate hitaaya
guhyam niguuhati
gun`aan prakat`iikaroti
aapadgatam ca na jhaati
dadaati kaale
san mitra lakshan`am idam
pravadanti santaha.

Good samaritans do not wait for being asked to help.
1. The Sun blooms the lotuses.
2. The moon blooms the water-lilies.
3. The clouds rain.

padmaakaram dinakaro vikacii karooti
camdroo vikaasayati kairava cakravaalam
naabhyarthito jaladharo'pi jalam dadaati
santaha svayam parahitee vihitaabhiyogaaha

Four types of men:
1. Good persons help others, even by sacrificing their own programs.
2. Ordinary persons help others, only when such help does not hurt their own programs.
3. Demons hinder and injure the programmes of others, for carrying out their own programmes.
4. Persons purposelessly hurting others goals and taks, the poet does not know what to call him.

etee satpurushaaha paraartha ghat`akaaha
svaarthaan parityajya ee
saamaanyaas tu paraartham
udyama bhrutah svaartha avirodhena ye
tee amii maanusha raakshasaaha
parhitam svaarthaaya nighnamti ye
ye tu ghnamti nirarthakam parhitam
tee kee na jaaniimahee

Friendship between Milk and water
1. Milk lends its good qualities to water, when water is added to it.
2. Water jumps into fire, when it finds the milk boiling and in danger.
3. Milk also jumps into fire, unable to bear the danger to its friend (water).
4. Both enjoy peace, when milk and water live together.

kshiireshaatmagatodakaaya hi gushaa dattaa puraa te'khilaa
kshiirottaapam avekshya tena payasaa svaatmaa krus`aanau hutah
gantuh paavakam unmanas tad abhavad drusht`vaa tu mitraapadh
yukth tena jalena s`aamyati satah maitrii punas tv iidrus`ii

itaha svapiti kees`avaha kulam
itas tadiiya dvishaam
itas` ca s`aran`aarthiinaam
s`ikharin`aam gan`aaha s`eratee
ito api bad`abaanalaha saha
samasta shvartakair
aho vitatam uurjitam bhara
saham sindhoor vapuhu

trushn`aam chindhi bhaja kshamaam
jahi madam paapee ratim maa kruthaaha
satyam bruuhi anuyaahi saadhu padaviim
seevasva vidvat janam
maanyaan maanaya vidvisho api
anunaya prakhyaapaya pras`rayam
kiirtim paalaya duhkhitee kuru dayaam
etat satah cesht`itam

manasi vacasi kaayee pun`ya piiyuusha puurn`aaha
tribhuvanam upakaara s`reen`ibhihi priin`ayantaha
para gun`a paramaan`uun parvatiikrutya nityam
nija hrudi vikasamtaha samti santaha kiyantaha

kim teena hema girin`aa rajataadrishaa vaa
yatraas`ritaas` ca taravas taravas ta eva
manyaamhe malayam eva yad aas`rayeen`a
kamkola nimba kat`ujaa api candanaah syuau

dhairya paddhati

Courageous persons, when once they take up a task, will not withdraw from it unless it is fully accomplished. In support of this theme, the poet gives the following examples:
1. Heaven’s Gods started shaking up the sea of Milk with the object of deriving immortalising nectar from it.
2. First instalment, they received precious stones.
3. Second instalment, they received threatening poisonous fire. They were not taken aback by the fierce fumes.
4. Till they derived the immortalising nectar they continued the effort without intermissions.

ratnair mhaabdhee stututur na devaa
na bheejiree bhiima visheen`a bhiitim
sudhaam vinaa na parayur viraamam
na nis`citaarthaad viramamti dhiiraaha

An accomplisher of tasks enjoys comforts and endures hardships while making his efforts. He does not care, consider or count the happiness or the hurdles in the process. The poet gives some examples:
1. He sleeps on luxurious beds. Sleeps on floor.
2. Devors sweet and delicious savories. Survives on vegetables.
3. Wears superior garments. Wears rags.

kvacit pruthviis`ayyaah
kvacid api ca paryamka s`ayanaha
kvacic chaakahaarah
kvacid api ca s`aalyodana rucihi
kvacit kanthaadhaarii
kvacid api ca divyaambaradharoo
manasvii kaaryaarthii na gan`ayati
duhkham na ca sukham

The poet identifies real jewels to a person in different states of body, mind and occupations.
At all times, for one and all, character is the best ornament of ornaments.
1. Wealth - Gentle and politeness.
2. Valor – Controlled and modulated tongue.
3. Knowledge – Relief.
4. Scholar – Humility and modesty.
5. Money – Well considered, deserving expenditure.
6. Ascetic – Inirritability.
7. King – Forgiveness and tolerance
8. Ethics - Unbiasedness

ais`varyasya vibhuushasham sujanataa
s`auryasya vaak samyamoo
gnaan api upapas`amaha
s`rutasya vinayoo
vittasya paatree vyayaha
akroodhas tapasaha
kshamaa prabhavitur
dharmasya nirvyaajataa
sarveshaam api sarva kaaran`am
idam s`iilam param bhuushan`am.

Even under most trying circumstances, come what may, the ethically steadfast persons adhere to the path of justice. They donot deviate even a foot from it. The poet gives some examples:
1. Let the moralists may praise or blame and criticise.
2. Let the Goddess of wealth arrive and accumulate, or leave.
3. Let the death be now itself or at the end of an age.

nindantu niiti nipun`aa
yadi vaa stuvantu
lakshmihi samaavis`atu
gacchatu vaa yatheesht`am
adyaiva vaa maran`am astu
yugaamtaree vaa
nyaayyaat pathaha pravicalamti
padam na dhiiraaha.

daiva paddhati

bhagnaas`asya karamd`a pimdita tanor mlaanendriyasya kshudhaa
krutvaakhur vivaram svayam nipatitoo nakth mukhee bhoginam
truptas tat pis`itena satvaram asau tenaiva yaatam yathaa
lokaam pas`yata daivam eva hi nrusham vruddhau kshaye kaaran`am

Procrastination is a person’s greatest enemy within. There is no relative which is equal to effort and perseverence.

aalasyam hi manushyaan`aam
s`ariirasthoo mahaan ripuhu
naasti udyama samoo bandhuhu
kurvaan`oo na avasiidati
chinno'pi rohati tar kshiieeo'py upaciiyate punas` candrah
iti vimrus`antah santah santapyante na duaukheshu

The poet displays a fatalistic outlook. He says that there is no use of depending one one’s own strength and prowess. One must surrender to God. In support of the argument, the poet quotes the example of Indra, the Lord of the Heaven. He has everything to win battles and despite such strength, he loses. Examples given for the strength:
1. Commander: Brihaspati (Planet Jupiter).
2. Weapon : Vajram (though made from thigh bone of an ascetic called Dadhiici, it is as hard as a diamond. Hence, called: Vajram.)
3. Army: Gods themselves.
4. Fort: Heaven itself.
5. Compassion and grace from: God S`iva.
6. Vehicle: Iravatam, a divine elephant.

netaa yasya bruhaspatau
praharan`am vajram
suraaha sainikaaha
svargoo durgam
anugrhaha kila harer
airaavatoo vaaran`aha
iti ais`varya balaanvitoo api

balabhid bhagnaha paraih samgare
tad vyaktam nanu
daivam eeva s`aran`am
dhig dhig vruthaa paurusham

The poet though adopts a fatalistic stance, says that we should do things only after considering the pros and cons. His arguments:
For men (no gender intended), the result and future depends on past acts. The intellect thinks and acts in tune with the past acts. Intelligent persons should, therefore, apply their mind.

karmaayattam phalam pumsaha
buddhihi karmaanusaarin`ii
tathaa api sudhiyaa bhaavyam
suvicaarya iva kurvataa.

The poet explains the fate of an unfortunate person who has been let down by the God. He argues that wherever an ill-fated person goes, the mishaps accompany him. He narrates the story of a bald headed person:
The bald headed person was suffering from the heat of the Sun’s rays. To get relief from the scorching Sunlight, he sits under a palmyrah tree. AT the same moment, a large heavy palm fruit fell on his head and broke his head.

kharvaat`oo divases`varasya kiran`ahi
santaad`itoo mastakee
vaamchan des`am anaatapam
vidhi vas`aat taalasya muulam gataha
tatraapi asya mahaaphaleena patataa bhagnam sas`abdam s`iraha
praayo gacchati yatra daiva hatakas
tatraiva yaanti aapadah

The poet wonders about the invincibility of the fate. Even greatmen were not exempt from the vicissitudes of the fate. The destiny and deprivation, when considered, appear to be stronger than even the intellectual persons. In support of his argument, the poet quotes the following examples.
1. The Sun and the moon get eclipsed and lose their luster.
2. Both elephants and serpents get caught and confined.

ravi nis`aakara yoor graha piid`anaha
gaja bhujamgamayoor api bandhanam
matimataam ca vilookya daridrataam
vidhir aho balavaan iti mee matihi.

srujati taavad as`eesha gun`akaram
purusha ratnam alamkaran`am bhuvaha
tad api tat kshan`a bhamgi karoti ceed
ahaha kasht`am apan`ditataa vidheeh.

patram naiva yadaa kariira vit`ape dosho vasantasya kim
noluuko api avalookate yadi divaa suuryasya kim duushan`am
dhaaraa naiva patanti caataka mukhee meghasya kim duushan`am
yat puurvam vidhinaa lalaat`a likhith tan maarjitum kaha kshamah


namasyaamo devaan nanu hatavidhes tee api vas`agaa
vidhir vandyam so api pratiniyata karmaika phaladam
phalam karmaayattam yadi kim amarau kim ca vidhinaa
namas tat karmabhyo vidhir api na yebhyam prabhavati

(Based on beliefs of Hinduism of 7c A.D.)
Brahma is the Creator. He has been entrusted the job of a potter. Creation is compared to a pottery.
The God Vishshu is the protector. Whenever demons caused great hardships to smaller Gods, Vishshu took incarnations on earth. There are ten chief incarnations: Fish, turtle, hog, half lion half man, a short person, an angry archer, a perfect man, a 100% demonstrator of God, Destroyer of evil.
The God S`hiva is the destroyer of the Universe, to facilitate re creation. Ordinarily, he lives in a graveyard and begs food using a skull.
The Sun God shuttles the skies tirelessly.
All the four Gods have undertaken arduous tasks only because the Supreme "Action (Karma)" has compelled them to perform the duties entrusted by it.
brahmaa yena kulaalavan niyamito brhmaaooa bhaashooodare
visheeur yena das`aavataara ghane kshipto mhaa samkat`e
rudro yena kapaala paashi put`ake bhikshaat`amkaaritah
suuryo bhraamyati nityam eva gagane tasmai namah karmashe
naivaakrutau phalati naivaa kulh na s`iilh
vidyaapi naiva na ca yatna krutaapi sevaa
bhaagyaani puurva tapasaa khalu samcitaani
kaale phalanti purushasya yathaiva vrukshaah

The poet believes in the rebirth. He also believes that accumulated good and bad acts follow a person in succeeding births and determine his fate. The good deeds protect him whereever he is. The poet gives a list of such situations:
1. In the forest.
2. In the battle field.
3. In the midst of enemies.
4. In the swirling waters.
5. In the engulfing flames.
6. In the midst of an ocean (say Bermuda triangle!)
7. On the cliff of a mountain.
8. While sleeping.
9. While not attentive.
1. While in dire straits.

s`atru jalaagni madhyee
parvata mastakee vaa
suptam pramattam
vishama sthitam vaa
rakshanti pun`yaani

---- ----- ---- ----
The poet argues that getting worried is wasteful. The fate’s vagaries are beyond anybody’s strength.
1. It makes a docile person a rascal.
2. Turns a scholar into an ignoramus.
3. Makes visible and direct, whatever is invisible and indirect.
4. Converts divine nectar into poison immediately.
If a person wants to enjoy desired results, the Goddess Bhagavati should be approached and worshipped.

yaa saadhuuhs` ca khalaan karoti
vidusho muurkhaan
hitaan dveshin`aha
pratyaksam kurutee parooksham
amrutam haalahalam tat kshan`aat
taam aaraadhaya sat kriyaam
bhagavatiim bhoktum phalam vaamchitam
hee saadhoo vyasanair gun`eeshu
vipuleeshv aasthaam vruthaa maa kruthaaha.

The poet sounds fatalistic. He says that the fruition of past acts is invincible. Its play can do anything. It burns heart. Its arrows are sharp and piecing. To support the idea, he gives the folowing examples:
1. Turns a high-charactered person into a rascal.
2. Converts a ready to fructify acts into unattainables. This the learned persons by constant efforts understand.

Gun`avad agun`avad vaa
kurvataa kaaryam aadau
parin`atir avadhaaryaa
yatnataha pamd`iteena
atirabhasa krutaanaam
karman`aam aavipatter
bhavati hrudaya dahii
s`alya tulyoo vipaakam.

The poet deplores the ways of an ill-fated person. The poet gives marvellous examples:
1. He cooks gingely seeds in a vessel studded with precious stones.
2. Uses sandalwood as firewood.
3. Uses a gold plough to plant calotropis seeds.
4. Powders camphor pieces and makes:
In this land of great actions of penance, the foolish person does not use his time to contemplate on God and the goals of human life.

sthaalyaam vaid`huurya mayyaam pacati tilakan`aams` candanair indhanair aghau
sauvarn`air laamgalaagrair vilikhati
vasudhaam arka muulasya hetooho
chitvaa karpuura khamd`aan
vruttim iha kurute
kodravaan`aam samantaat
praapyemaam karma bhuumim
na carati manujoo yas topa manda bhaagyaha

The poet is as usual fatalistic. He gives no value to our efforts. He says that if a thing is destined not to happen, it will not happen in spite of whatever we do. If it is destined to happen, nobody can stop it. List of the efforts, he gave as futile:
1. Dive in seas;
2. Climb great cliffs and Mounts.
3. Annihilate enemies in battles.
4. Engage in commerce, agriculture and service;
5. Learn all arts and skills.
6. Fly like a kite.

majjatv ambhasi yaatu meeru s`ikharam s`atruh jayatv aahave
vaan`ijyam krushi seevanee ca sakalaa vidyaam kalaam s`ikshataam
aakaas`a vipulam prayaatu khagavat krutvaa prayatam param
na abhaavyam bhavatiiha karma vas`ato bhaavyasya naas`am kutaha

The poet believes in determinism. He is fatalistic in this verse, emphasizes the importance of “the fruits of good acts of a person from his previous births”.
If a person has accumulated credits from benevolence, even if forest is its dwelling, it becomes a great town. All the residents become his own people. Whatever he does, his home and premises abound in gems and precious stones.

bhiimam vanam bhavati
tasya puram pradhaanam
sarvo janaam svajanataam
upayaati tasya
krutsnaa ca bhuur bhavati
sannidhi ratna puurn`aa
yasyaasti puurva sukruth
vipulam narasya

ko laabhoo gun`eesamgamaha kim asukmh praajmetarau samgatau
kaa haanau samaya cyutir nipun`ataa kaa dharma tatvee ratau
kaha s`uuro vijiteendriyam priyatamaa kaa anuvrataa kim dhanam
vidyaa kim sukham apravaasa gamamraajyam kim aagnaa phalam

apriya vacana daridrau priya vacana dhanaaoohyau sva daara paritusht`au
para parivaada nivruttau kvacit kvacin man`ooitaa vasudhaa

Fire when inverted, flares upwards only. A composed person does not lose his courage.

kadarthitasya api hi dhairya vrutteer
na s`akyate dhairya gun`aha pramaarsht`um
adhomukhasya api krutasya vahneer
na adhaha s`ikhaa yaati kadaacid eva

One man can conquer the whole world! He must have the following qualities: 1. He should not be moved by the penetrating rays of the kindly rays emanating from women's eyes. 2. He should not have greed.

Kaantaa kat`aaksha vis`ikhaa na lunanti yasya
citth na nirdhati kipa krus`a anu taapaha
karshanti bhuuri vishayaas` ca na lobha paas`air
loka trayaha jayati krutsnam idh sa dhiiraha

Even one true warrior is sufficient to conquer the whole world.
Doesn't one Sun light the whole Earth?

ekenaapi hi s`uuresha
paadaakraanth mahiitalam
kriyate bhaaskaren`aiva
sphaara sphurita tejasaa


vahnis tasya jalaayate jala nidhau
kulyaayate tat kshashaan
meruau svalpa s`ilaayate
mrugapatau sadyaha kuramgaayate
vyaaloo maalya gun`aayatee
visha rasah piiyuusha varshaayate
yasyaamge'khila loka vallabhatamam
s`iilam samunmiilati

lajjaa gun`augha jananiih
jananiim iva svaam
atyanta s`uddha hrudayaam
tejasvinah sukham
asuun api santyajanati
satya vrata vyasanino
na punaha pratignaam

Vairaagya S`atakam Bhagavadgita comparison
Can we compare Vairaagya S`atakam and Bhagavad Gita?
Bhagavad Gita is a part of Maha Bharata, which is an epic. Gita contains 714 verses and Bhaarata contains 115,000 verses (approx.). Naturally, its lyrical and poetic qualities will be less. Vairaagya S`atakam contains only 100 verses.
Gita is preceptary. Krishna preaches reluctant Arjuna to fight a battle. Vairagya Satakam is 'reflective' and 'remoreseful'. The contents were the personal experiences of Bhartruhari who went through the whole hell. If at all there is any preaching, the poet preaches himself. The Sanskrit phrases used have great charm, literal value and beauty of selection of words. Though great men like Gandhi, Tilak et al claimed that Gita changed their lives, I feel that Bhartruhari can change the lives of people suffering this hell of the materialistic world (often without cognisance and occasionally knowingly), particularly those who are addicted to vices like narcotics and alcohol. Though it is said that Gita motivates people to 'action', a person may lose his reason and become superstitious. The contents of Gita are only priestly dialogues.

CHAPTER 2: TRUSHN`AA DUUSHAN`AMCHAPTER 2. CONDEMNATION OF LUSTThe poet is extremely critical about his surrender to desires.
CHAPTER 3. VISHAYA PARITYAAGA VID`AMBANAMUCHAPTER 3: DELINEATION OF RELINQUISHMENT OF SENSUAL PLEASURESThe poet extols the virtues of renunciation and laments about his own weaknesses
CHAPTER 4: YACGNAA (YACHANA KHAND`ANAM)CHAPTER 4: CONDEMNATION OF BEGGINGThe poet is extremely critical about begging for money at the doorsteps of stingy barons. At the same time he extols the virtues of bhikshaas`anam (Food obtained by begging for alms).
CHAPTER 5: BHOOGAASTHIRATA VARN`ANAMCHAPTER 5: DEPICTION OF TRANSIENCE OF LUXURIESThe poet is extremely vexed and concerned with the transience of luxuries and cautions humans to be wary.
The poet is astonished by the absolute control of Fate on a person's behaviour and life.
CHAPTER 7: YATI NRUPATI SAMVAADAMCHAPTER 7: ASCETIC VS KING DEBATE The poet compares himself with arrogant rulers and condemns their greed and condescending behaviour
CHAPTER 8: MANAS SAMBOODHANA NIYAMANAMCHAPTER 8: ADDRESSING AND REGULATING MINDThe poet introverts and addresses his mind on the vagaries of pleasures and to discipline it.
CHAPTER 9: NITYA ANITYA VASTU VICAARAM CHAPTER 9: ETERNAL TRANSIENT ENQUIRYThe poet makes a critical comparison of what is eternal and what is ephemeral.
CHAPTER 10: S`IVAARCANAMCHAPTER 10: WORSHIP OF SIVA (S`iva)The poet longs for worship of S`iva. Though he uses the word 'S`iva, the word God can be applied to Gods of all religions.
CHAPTER 11: AVADHUUTA CARYA CHAPTER 11: ACTIONS OF AN ASCETIC The poet discusses the actions of an ascetic and wants to be in Union with the Supreme Spirit. In the last verse, he bids farewell to the five elements. This is a masterpiece of example of a decent death.

1. cuud`ottaasita-candra-caaru-kalikaa-caicac-chikhaa-bhaasvaro
liilaa-dagdha-vilola-kaama-s`alabhau s`reeyo-das`aagree sphuran |
antau-sphuurjad-apaara-moha-timira-praag-bhaaram uccaat`ayan
s`veetau-sadmani yoginaa vijayatee gnaana-pradiipo harau
This verse describes Lord Shiva. The poet compares him to a lamp enkindled by the flame of knowledge which resides in the heart of the ascetics; Moon adorning the head of S'iva radiates like an ornament. S'iva destroys sensual pleasure (compared to moths). He shines at the anterior end of the wick. Eliminates the darkness from hearts filled with infinite attachments.

2. bhraantam dees`am aneeka-durga-vishamam praaptam na kimcit phalam
tyaktvaa jaati-kulaabhimaanam ucitam seevaa kritaa nishphalaa |
bhuktam maana-vivarjitam para-griheeshv aas`amkayaa kaakavat
trishii jrimbhasi paapa-karma-niratee(pis`unee) naadyaapi santushyasi 2
The poet is disgusted with his own desire and greed.I He wandered inaccessible forests and forts. He sacrificed his pride and served the rich. Like a crow he ate in the houses of others out of greed, foregoing self respect. O Desire! He addresses the greed that it only multiplies and does not get satiated.
3. utkhaataa nidhi-s`amkayaa kshiti-talaa dhmaataa gireer dhaatavo
nistiirn`au saritaa patir napatayo yatneena santoshitau|
mantraaraadhana-tat-pariia manasaa niitaus`mas`aanee nis`au
praaptau kaan`a-varaat`ako'pi na mayaa trishii sakaamaa bhava 3
This verse also deals with unfulfilled desires and greed. He describes what he did to quench his greed. 1. He excavated ground to discover treasures. 2. He blowed with fire, all the minerals found in the Mainaka Mountain. 3. He crossed oceans. 4. Tried to please kings and the rich. 5. Spent nights meditating and reciting mantras in grave yards. He could not get a cent. He urges the greed to satisfy itself and be happy
4. khalaalaapausaud`haukatham api tad-aaraadhana-parai-
rnigrihyaantar-baashpaa hasitam api s`uunyeena manasaa |
krito vitta-stambha-pratihata-dhiyaam aijalir api
tvam aas`ee moghaas`ee kima aparam ato nartayasi maam 4
5. amiishaa praan`aanaam tulita-bisinii-patra-payasaa
kritee kim naasmaabhir vigalita-viveekair vyavasitam |
yad-aad`hyaanaam agree dravin`a-mada-nausaajia-manasaam
kritam viita-vriid`air nija-gun`a-kathaa-paatakam api 5
The poet repents: 'For the sake of saving these transient lives,is there any foolish thing which is not done by us? We acquired the sin of self-praise before the wealthy arrogant persons.
6. kshaantam na kshamayaa gruhocita-sukham tyaktam na santoshataha
sod`ho duùsaha-s`iita-taapa-pavana-klees`o na taptaa tapau |
dhyaatam vittam ahar-nis`am nityamita-praan`air na s`ambhoù padam tat-tat-karma kritam yad eeva munibhis tais tais phalair vamcitaha6
This verse also reflects a repenting mood. The poet compares himself with an ascetic. Ascetics during the course of their penance, undergo a number of hardships, such as exposure to vagaries of climate. The ascetics bear insults and external stimulii. They forego pleasures of family by renunciation. The poet has also done all these, for a different purpose. Besides, there was no alternative. The poet had borne insults as there was no other go in the circumstances. The endurance was not due to conquering of senses and emotions. The poet abstained family pleasures, as he was serving the wealthy masters. Enduring the heat and cold took place in the course of outdoor work for earning money. The poet regulated his breath and meditated on money and not on the feet of God. Consequently, the poet was not entitled to and did not receive the benefits of the penance.

7. bhogaa na bhuktaa vayam eeva bhuktaas
tapo na taptaa vayam eeva taptau|
kaalo na yaato vayam eeva yaataa-
strishn`aa na jiirn`aa vayam eeva jiirn`au7
The poet expresses his vexation with the worldly pleasures. He says: "We have not enjoyed the pleasures. The pleasures enjoyed us. We have not performed any penance. The penance burnt us up. We have not spent the time. The time has spent us out. Desire and greed are not exhausted. We are exhausted by the desire and greed.
8. balibhir mukham aakraantam paliteenaamkitaa s`irau |
gaatraan`i s`ithilaayantee trishn`aikaa tarun`aayatee 8
This verse also deals with repentence. The poet laments that everything except 'desire and lust' is worn out by old age. Wrinkles on the face! Gray hair! Loose and feeble limbs! Lust alone is young!

8A. viveeka-vyaakos`ee vidadhati samee s`aamyati trishaa
parishvamgee tumgee prasaratitaraa saa parin`ataa |
strishaapaatraa yasyaa bhavati marutaam apy adhipatau
9. nivrittaa bhogeecchaa purusha-bahu-maano'pi galita
samaanausvar-yaatau sapadi suhrido jiivita-samaha|
s`anair yasht`y utthaanaa ghana-timira-ruddhee ca nayanee
aho muud`haha kaayas tad api maran`aapaaya-cakitaha. 9
Desire to enjoy exhausted. Ego and sense of prestige dried up. Kindhearted friends were gone. Can stand up only with crutches. Eyes are blurred and wet. Yet, the ignorant body is surprised at the very thought of death.
10. aas`aa naama nadii manoratha-jalaa trishn`aa-taramgaakulaa
raaga-graahavatii vitarka-vihagaa dhairya-druma-dhvaasinii |
mohaavarta-sudustaraatigahanaa prottumga-cintaa-tat`ii
tasyaupara-gataa vis`uddham alaso nandanti yogiis`varau 10

11. na samsaarotpannam caritam anupas`yaami kus`alam
vipaakaha pun`yaanaam janayati bhayaa mee vimris`ataha |
mahadbhihi pun`yaughais` cira-parigrihiitaas` ca vishayaa
mahanto jaayantee vyasanam iva daatum vishayin`aam 11
The acts and experiences of home, family and the worldly affairs do not appear to me to be safe and comforting. Even good deeds and the accompanying honour appear to be generating fear.Things such as happy family life, smells of sandalwood etc. which a person is fortunate to gain from good deeds of past birth, appear to me to be causing misery, because such comforts taper and dwindle in course of enjoyment, ultimately coming to a naught. Hence, wise people know that enjoyments are like vices and are worth relinquishment.
12. avas`yam yaataaras` cirataram ushitvaapi vishayaa
viyogee ko bheedas tyajati na jano yat svayam amuun |
vrajantaha svaatantryaad atula-paritaapaaya manasaha
svayam tyaktaa hi eetee s`ama-sukham anantam vidadhati 12
Enjoyments are bound to disappear with afflux of time. When they go, much misery results. Hence, why should a person wait till they go? A person who relinquishes enjoyments on his own volition gets greater peace and endless joy.
13. brahma-gnaana-viveeka-nirmala-dhiyaha kurvanti aho dushkaram
yan muncanti upabhoga-bhaangi api dhanaani eekaantato nisprihaa|
sampraataan na puraa na samprati na ca praaptau drid`ha-pratyayoo
vaamchaa-maatra-parigrahaan api param tyaktum na s`aktaa vayam 13
Those self-realised wise persons accomplish even the most difficult things. Without a semblance of pain and awareness, they relinquish worldly pleasures knowing pretty well that they can be enjoyed. We are unable to forego the sensual pleasures which were not experienced in the past,not being enjoyed now and there is no hope of being received in future.
14. dhanyaanam giri-kandareeshu vasatam jyotihi param dhyaayataam
aanandaas`ru-jalam pibanti s`akunaa niss`amkam amkees`ayaha|
asmaakam tu manoorathoparacita-praasaada-vaapii-tat`a-
kriid`aa-kaanana-keeli-kautuka-jushaam aayuhu param kshiiyatee 14
The poet envies the fortunate wise ascetics who live in mountain caves and contemplate on the supreme spirit. From their eyes tears of happiness roll down. Birds fearlessly sit on their laps and drink the drops of tears. The poet laments our own misfortune of ceaselessly contemplating on the mansions of desires built in our minds. We dig wells, lakes and build gardens around the mansions of desires and engage ourselves in a fruitless play. The whole tenure of life is lost in the process.
15. bhiksha-as`anam tad api niirasam eeka-vaaram
s`ayyaa ca bhuuhu parijanoo nija-deeha-maatram |
vastram vis`iirn`a s`ata-khamd`a-mayii ca kanthaa
haa haa tatha api vishayaa na parityajanti (jahaati ceetaha) 15
The poet laments about his lack of true renunciation. He has all the external manifestations of a renunciating mendicator. His food is only by begging. That too devoid of nutrients and strength. The scant food is only once in a day.He sleeps on bare earth. Sociating is only with his own body (There are no friends except himself). Rags are the garments torn into a hundred pieces. In spite of adopting all the practices of an a hermit, the longing for desires are not receding.
16. stanau maamsa-granthii kanaka-kalas`aav iti upamitii
mukham s`leeshmaagaaram tad api ca s`as`aamkeena tulitam |
sravan-muutra-klinnaa kari-vara-s`ira-spardhi jaghanaa
muhur nindyaa ruupaa kavi-jana-vis`eeshair guru-kritam 16
This verse criticises the ways of the poets who describe women with eloquent similes. Breasts contain flesh. Poets exaggerate them as gold pots. Face is a storehouse of phlegm. Poets compare faces of women to moon (cool like snow). Thighs and uterus-vulva contain urine. Poets compare them to the head of an elephant. Thus all the organs of females are unclean and blameworthy, but poets add grandeur to them by praise.
17. eeko raagishu raajatee priyatamaa-deehaardha-haarii haro
niiraageeshu jano vimukta-lalanaasamgo na yasmaat parau |
durvaara-smara-baan`a-pannaga-visha-vyaabiddha-mugdho janau
s`eeshau kaama-vid`ambitaan na vishayaan bhoktum na moktum kshamaha. 17
If there is a true lover, it is only Lord Shiva. He wears his beloved on the left half of his body. If there is a true relinquisher, it is only Lord Shiva. Who else could reduce the God of Love Manmatha into ashes? Ordinary people are tempted and mesmerised by the God of Love Manmatha into a temporary trance. They can neither love truely nor relinquish truly.
18. ajaanan daahaatmyaa patatu s`alabhas tiivra-dahanee
sa miinoo api agnaanaad bad`is`a-yutam as`naatu pis`itam |
vijaanantoo api eetee vayam iha viyaj (vipaj) jaala-jat`ilaan
na mumcaamaha kaamaan ahaha gahanoo mooha-mahimaa 18
Moths fall in fire, being unaware of the combustive nature of the fire. Fish attracted by the bait of food, fall in the net. On the other hand, we know pretty well that pleasures are accompanied by hardships and pains. Yet we are unable to abstain from them. It is difficult to gauge the depth and intensity of the temptation.
19. trishaa s`ushyati; aasyee pibati salilaa s`iita-madhuram
kshudhaartaha s`aalyannam kabal`ayati maamsaadi-kalitam |
pradiiptee kaamaagnau sudrid`hataram aalimgati vadhuuhu
pratiikaaram vyaadhau sukham iti viparyasyati janaha. 19
A hungry person drinks cool and sweet water. A hungry person relishes sweet foods with food. A sexually aroused person embraces his wife intensely. These are all ameliorators for pains. These are reactions. But, people errorneously believe that they are pleasures.
20. tumgam vees`ma; sutau sataam abhimataaha; samkhyaathikaaha sampadaha; kalyaan`ii dayitaa; vayas` ca navam iti agnaana-muud`ho janaha |
matvaa vis`vam anas`varam nivis`atee samsaara-kaaraa-grihee
samdris`ya kshan`a-bhamguram tad akhilaa dhanyas tu sannyasyati 20
Home is a mansion. Sons are obedient. Riches are countless. Wife is delight-giving. Youth is fresh. Ignorant people think on these lines and confine themselves in the prison of family. Viewing all these as extremely temporary and vanishing, wise people renounce the world and become ascetics.

diinaa diina mukhaau sadaiva s`is`ukair aakrisht`a jiirn`aambara aa
kros`adbhau kshudhitair niranna vidhuraa dris`yaa na ceed geehinii .
yaacgnaa bhamga bhayeena gadgada gala trut`yad viliinaaksharam
ko deehii iti vadeet sva dagdha jat`harasyaarthee manasvii pumaan .21
Why should a man with self respect beg? When he entreats for something, his voice choaks with fear of failure/refusal by donor. His words become broken. Yet he says 'Pl. give ... etc.'.
The poet explains the compelling circumstances. When a person sees his starving and sunken faced wife clad in a torn saree being chased by his hungry children seeking food, he cannot but go for a charity support. This is a masterpiece from the poet. He clearly recognises that the wisest person is driven to a pitiable state by hunger in the family.
abhimata mahaamaana granthi prabheeda pat`iiyasii
gurutara gun`a graama ambhooja sphut`oojjvala candrikaa .
vipula vilasal lajjaa vallii vitaana kut`hhaarikaa
jat`hhara pit`harii dushpuureeyam karooti vid`ambanam .22
This is another superb piece of verse from Bhartruhari. The poet compares the belly to a large barrel. When hungry, it breaks self respect. Just as moonlight makes lotus flowers to contract and close their petals, the stomach contracts all virtues of a person. Like an axe it severs the creeper like sense of shame of a person and makes him to stoop and kneel. This barrel is hard to fill.
pun`yee graamee vanee vaa mahati sita pat`acchanna paaliim kapaalii
aadaaya nyaaya garbha dvija huta huta bhug dhuuma dhuumropakamt`hee .
dvaaraa dvaaram pravisht`oo varam udara darii puuran`aaya kshudhaarto
maanii praan`ais sanaathoo na punar anudinam tulya kulyeeshu diinaha .23
The poet compares three choices of begging available for a hungry person to fill up his belly. 1. Begging peers and relatives. 2. Begging in forests. 3. Begging, wearing a white cloth, door to door in villages having houses of wise persons performing the sacred rites and maintaining the sacred fire, smoke emitting from house tops. The poet finds the second and third choices better.
gamgaa taramga kan`a (hima) s`iikara s`iitalaani
vidyaadhara adhyushita caaru s`ilaa talaani .
sthaanaani kim himavataha pralayam gataani
yat saavamaana para pimd`a rataa manushyaaha.24

Here, the poet is critical about the mendicants relishing and supplicating themselves with balls of food received from others. He questions: 'Have all the captivating Himalayan valleys full of dew drops from the River Ganges and visited by angels perished?'
kim kandaaha kandareebhyaha pral`ayam upagataaha; nirjharaa vaa giribhyaha;
pradhvastaa vaa tarubhyaha; sarasa phala bhrito valkalinyas` ca s`aakhaha
viikshyantee yan mukhaani prasabham apagata pras`rayaan`am khalaanaam
duhkhoo upatta svalpa (alpa) vitta smaya pavana vas`aa nartita bhruu lataani .25

The poet further questions: 'Have the tubers and roots disappeared from the forests? (Ascetics survive on them). Have the fruit-laden trees, yielding fibre for making clothes died down? (Eating fruits, roots and tubers and wearing fabrics made of tree barks and drinking the sweet water of sacred rivers, moving in the valleys, the poet prefers to begging). The poet is distressed to see the worry-grooves on the foreheads of mendicants begging wicked barons for money and exhausting themselves due to insults.
pun`yair muula phalais tathaa priyee pran`ayiniim vrittim kuru svaadhunaa
bhuu s`ayyaam nava pallavair akrupan`air uttisht`ha yaavoo vanam
kshudraan`aam aviveeka muud`ha manasaam yatrees`varaan`aam sadaa
vitta vyaadhi vikaara vihvala giraam naamaa api na s`ruuyatee .26
The poet asks his beloved to accompany him to the forest. He asks her to make a bed of leaf beds. He wants her to make food of delicious fruits and roots.
The poet does not want to hear even the name of those lowly rich barons 1. who are not wise 2. who are foolish minded 3. whose minds do not rest on God 4. who are always anxious about and talk about getting or not getting money. This poem is a marvellous example of the poet's abhorrence of begging the covetous.
This translator's comments: 1. The poet has no desire to relinquish his beloved even in the forest. 2. He wants her to serve him by making food and bed. 3. About roots and fruits: In 21st Century, most of us particularly vegetarians are root eaters (potatos, carrots, colacasia, beet root etc.) and fruit eaters.
phalam sveecchaa labhyam prativanam akheedam kshitiruhaam
payah sthaanee sthaanee s`is`ira madhuram pun`ya saritaam
mridu spars`aa s`ayyaa sulalita lataa pallava mayii
sahantee santaapaa tad api dhaninaamm dvaari kripan`aaha.27
The poet wonders why mendicants spend their time at the doorsteps of misers when rivulets are full of sweet water to drink and fruits are available aplenty and painlessly and leaf beds are available to sleep.
yee vartantee dhanapati purau praarthanaa duhkha bhaajo
yee ca alpatvaa dadhati vishayaaksheepa paryaapta buddheehe
teeshaam antah sphurita hasitam vaasaraan`i smareeyam
dhyaana ccheedee s`ikhari kuhara graava s`ayyaa nishan`n`aha.28
The poet compares himself with the mendicants and laughs at them during intervals between one session of meditation and another session.
1. The poet's happy position: He ws sitting on a bed of stone in the cave at the hill top and meditating.
2. The mendicants were standing at the doorsteps of the stingy barons seeking money. They were thinking of ordinary sensual pleasures again and again and stooping down in the process.
yee santosha nirantara pramuditas teeshaam na bhinnaa
yee tva anyee dhana lubdha samkala dhiyas teeshaam na trishn`aahataa .
ittham kasya kritee kutaha sa vidhinaa kii (taa) drik padam sampadaa
svaatmany eeva samaapta heema mahimaa meerur na mee rocatee .29

The poet questions the wisdom of the Creator in making the Mount Meru (pronounced Meeru as in 'mare (long vowel)', made of gold. It does not satisfy the wants of anybody.How?
1. Those who are happy by contemplating on the Supreme Spirit and are contented, their happiness, Meeru's gold cannot disturb.
2. Those who want worldly things and are enamored of seeking gold, their greed, Meeru's gold cannot satisfy.
(Thus when desire and greed cannot be satisfied even by a mountain of gold, begging for money is despicable. This is the central theme of the verse).
bhikshaahaaram adainyam apratisukhaa bhiiti cchidam sarvataha
durmaatsarya madaabhimaana mathanam duhkhaugha vidhvamsanam
sarvatraan vaham aprayatna sulabham saadhu priyam paavanam
s`ambhooho satram avaaryam akshaya nidhim s`amsanti yogiis`varaaha.30

The poet answers the paramount question: 'After renouncing and surrendering everything, how a person can live?'
The poet highlights and praises the merits of food obtained by begging:
1. Not obtained by stooping down.
2. Gives immense comfort.
3. Breaks the sense of fear and
4. Breaks the envy and pride in
5. Removes heaps of misery.
6. Available always and daily.
7. Available without much effort.
8. Likeable to ascetics.
9. Gift of Lord S`iva.
10.Most eligible and befitting.
11.Not exhausting.
The poet uses a number of adjectives to emphasize the importance of alms for an ascetic.
This translator's comments: 1. There is an apparent conflict between forest fruits/roots and the food obtained by alms. But it is not. When the ascetics live in forests they eat wild fruits and roots. When they visit villages which are mostly adjuncts or in the middle of forests, they obtain alms door to door.

2. The poet condemns begging for money and not for bhikshaas`anam (food for survival). In fact, in such begging also there are some rules. The mendicant cannot stand at one door step for long time. The begging should not be for the purpose of storing. Actually, vessels or bags should not be used for collecting food. The mendicant should use his two hands joined together like a bowl and eat on the spot. In those days householders also used to treat mendicants kindly.

bhoogee roogabhayam kulee cyuti bhayam vittee nripaalaad bhayam
maanee dhainya bhayam balee ripu bhayam ruupee jaraaya bhayam .
s`aastree vaadibhayam guii khala bhayam kaayee kritaantaad bhayam
sarvaa vastu bhayaanvitam bhuvi nèn`aa vairaagyam eeva abhayam .31
The poet laments that entire life of a human is full of cares and fears. He lists out: 1. Enjoying leads to diseases. 2. Having a caste, gives a fear of expulsion. 3. Money may be seized by kings (21st Century: Taxation by the Govt. and searches by the I.R.S.) 4. Honor gives an apprehension of humiliation. 5. Physical strength poses danger from enemies (A strong person challenges enemies for a fight and hence danger). 6. A beautiful body and form is anxious of losing it by lurking old age. 7. Knowledge of scriptures can lead to arguments and defeats. 8. Gentle qualities have a danger of harm from wicked persons. 9. Body itself is afraid of death.
On this earth everything is frought with fear. Distaste and disengagement alone have a sense of assurance. 21st Century: Insurance takes care of some of these worries. Panic levels are lower? Insurance premia also cause burden and worry!
aakraantam maran`eena janma jarasaa ca ati ujjvalam yauvanam
(jarayaa vidyut calam yauvanam)
santoosho dhana lipsayam s`ama sukham praud`haamganaa vibhramaihi.
lokair matsaribhir gun`aa, vana bhuvoo vyaalair, nripaa durjanair,
asthairyeen`a vibhuutayoo api upahataa grastam na kim keena vaa .32
'Who is not bit by what?' The poet wonders. He is surprised at the absolute temporariness of everything in this world. He lists out: 1. Birth is followed by death. 2. The super vibrant youth ends by old age. 3. Happiness is endangered by greed for money. 4. Inner tranquility is disturbed by the tempting postures of ladies and showgirls. 5. Virtues suffer from envy of wicked persons. 6. Forest places are filled with cruel animals. 7. Kings are surrounded by coterie of rogues.8. Riches are accompanied by risks and uncertainties.
aadhi vyaadhi s`atair janasya vividhair aarogyam unmuulyatee
lakshmiir yatra patanti tatra vivrita dvaaraa iva vyaapadaha;
jaatam jaatam avas`yam aas`u vivas`am mrityuhu karoti aatmasaat
tat kim teena (naama) niramkus`eena vidhinaa yan nirmitam susthiram .33

The poet declares that Fate (Creator's Will) is a dictator. Nothing built by it is really eternal and stable. He wonders 'What is permanent?'. He lists out the ephemeralities: 1. Sense of welfare is hit by both physical and mental illnesses. 2. Riches have the concomitants of dangers, risks, and uncertainties. 3. Every birth and life is devored by the Goddess of Death.
bhogaas tumga taramga bhamga taralaha; praan`aha kshan`a dhvaasinaha;
astokaany eeva dinaani yauvana sukha sphuurtihi priyaa susthitaa; .
tat saasaaram asaaram eeva nikhilam buddhvaa budhaa bodhakaa
lokaanugraha pees`aleena manasaa yatnah samaadhiiyataam .34
The poet explains how wise persons recognise the futility of family and life; how they should reset their minds to do great good to the society. The poet lists out the perils of life: 1. Luxuries and pleasures are like the bubbles on the rising waves of the sea. 2. Lives are momentary. 3. Youth and and happiness from women are for only a few days.
bhogaa meegha vitaana madhya vilasat saudaaminii cancalaa;
aayur vaayu vighat`t`itaabja pat`alii liinaambuvad bhamguram;
liilaa yauvana laalasaast anubhritaam; iti aakalayya drutam
yogoo dhairya samaadhi siddhi sulabhee buddhim vidadhvam budhaaha.35
This verse is similar to the previous verse. Clearly determining the instability of every superficial thing in the world, wise persons engage their minds in yoga (yooga=Union with the Supreme Spirit) and samaadhi (State of unconsciousness to the external stimulii, by virtue of being engaged to the Supreme Spirit). The poet identifies the endangered items and uses beautiful similes: 1. Luxuries are like the 'lightnings' on the clouds, absolutely momentary. 2. Lives are like drops of dew on lotus leaves hit by hurricanes. 3. Youthful pleasures vanish with afflux of time.
aayuhu kallola lolam; katipaya divasa sthaayinii yauvana s`riir;
arthaaha samkalpa kalpaa; ghana samaya tad`id vibhramaa bhoga puugaaha;
kamt`haas`leeshopaguud`ham tad api ca na ciram yat priyaabhihi pran`iieetam
brahman`ya aasakta cittaa bhavata bhava bhayoomboodhi paaram tariitum .36
The poet addresses himself to become engaged to the Supreme Cosmic Soul (Supreme Spirit). Reason: ephemerality of the life and pleasures. The poet lists out: 1. Life is tempestuous. 2. Youth lasts only a few years. 3. Riches are like mental conceptions (Translator's comment: When we see a currency note or a bond, we imagine their value based on faith and trust on the value contained in and transferred through them. The issuing authority may change. It may default. 4. Luxuries are like assembling and vanishing clouds.5. Throat is full of phlegm. 6. Embraces of the beloved are momentary.
krucchreen`aa meedhya madhyee niyamita tanubhih sthiiyatee garbha vaasee;
kaantaa vis`leesha duhkha vyatikara vishamoo yauvanee coopabhoogaha;
vaamaakshiin`aam avagnaa vihasita vasatir vriddha bhaavoo anyasaadhuhu
saasaaree ree manushyaa! vadata! yadi sukham svalpam api asti kimcit? .37

The poet addresses this verse to every human. "Oh human! (ree manushya!)'.
Vadata! : Tell!
yadi sukham svalpam api asti? Is there is any little happiness (in living)? The poet enumerates the sequence in human life:
1. Spends nine months in mother's womb amidst fluids. This he considers dirty and painful.
2. Spends youth in longing for union with beloved who is yet to approach/be approached or who is away. This he considers painful.
3. Spends old age in a sense of humiliation when youthful girls laugh at him.
Where is the happiness? There is only melancholy.
vyaaghri iva tisht`hati jaraa paritarjayantii
rogaas` ca s`atrava iva praharanti deeham .
aayuhu parisravanti bhinna ghat`aa divaambho
lokas tathaapi ahitam aacarati
iti citram .38
This verse is short, yet crisp and straight.He exclaims at this wondrous world. List: 1. Old age sits like a tigress in waiting to pounce upon.
2. Ailments are attacking the body like sworn enemies.
3. Day and night, the longevity is leaking out like water from a porous pot.
Yet the world practises what is not good for it.
bhogaa bhamgura vruttayoo bahuvidhaas; tair eeva ca ayam bhavas;
tat kasyeeha kritee paribhramata ree lokaaha kritam ceesht`ataihi;
aas`aa paas`a s`atoopas`aanti vis`adam ceetas samaadhiiyatam
kaamotpatti (kaamocchitti) vas`aat svadhaamani yadi s`raddheeyam asmad vacaha .39
sakhee dhanyajh keecit trut`ita bhava bandha vyatikaraa
vanaantee cittaantar visham avishayaas`iit visha gatau.
s`arac candra jyotsnaa dhavala gagana abhoga subhagaa
nayantee yee raatrim sukruta caya cintaika s`aran`ajha.
brahmeendraadi marud gan`aas trin`a kan`aan yatra sthito manyatee
yat svaadaad virasaa bhavanti vibhavaas trailokya raajyaadayau
bhoogaha koo api sa eeva eeka paramo nityoodito jrimbhatee
bhoh saadhoo kshan`a bhamguree tad itaree bhogee ratim maa krithau.40
The ascetic who considers that Gods like the Creator, etc. as particles of straw and who treats the Lordship of the three worlds as distasteful, will treat all the enjoyments as purely transitory. A person who is engaged in Union to the Supreme Spirit considers the smaller Gods like the Creator, the God of Heaven as a blade of straw. When compared to that experience, even the Lordship of the Three Worlds (Heaven, Earth and Nether World) tastes insipid. The poet addresses the ascetic to concentrate only on that unique, supreme, vibrant experience. All other enjoyments are transient and momentary. He advises the Seeker not to indulge in lower pleasures.

saa ramyaa nagarii mahaan sa nripatis saamanta cakram ca tat-
paars`vee tasya ca saa vidagdha parishat taas` candra bimbaananaaha,
udvrittaha sa raaja putra nivahas tee vandinas taah kathaaha
sarvam yasya vas`aad agaat smriti pathaa kaalaaya tasmai namaha .41
The poet addresses the Fate and salutes it. He recalls the halcyon days: That captivating city! That Great King! That circle of Knights and Barons! That Great Assembly of Scholars! Those ladies of moon like faces! That group of proud princes! Those flatterers! Those stories! All the things were gone and reduced to sheer memories and images. The entire change is owing to the Great FAte! Oh God of Fate, I salute thee!
yatra aneekee kvacid api grihee, tatra tisht`hati atha eeko
yatraapi eekas tad anu bahavas tatra na eeko api ca antee .
ittham na eeyai (ca imau) rajani divasau loolayan dvaav ivaakshau
kaalaha kalyo (kaalyaa) bhuvana phalakee kriid`ati praan`i s'aaraih.42
This verse deals with a game of dice played by the God of Fate with his wife. In the game, there are a number of squares played with a number of pawns. The poet examines alternative situations:
1. A player with a square having a number of pawns, may end up with nothing. (Incurs losses and becomes a pauper).
2. A player with a square having only one pawn in a square at the beginning, may have a number of pieces in a square in middle game, and when the end approaches, he may have nothing.

There are imponderables and uncertainties. The Poet views that for the rise and fall of creatures, the Fate is responsible.
aadityasya gataagatair aharaham saakshiiyatee jiivitam
vyaapaarair bahu kaarya bhaara gurubhihi kaaloo api na vignaayatee,
drisht`vaa janma jaraa vipatti maran`am traasas` ca na utpadyatee,
piitvaa mohamayiim pramaada madiraam unmatta bhuutam jagat .43
The poet compares this world to a strong intoxicating liquor. People having drunk the brew forget that their life gets eroded with every sunrise and sunset. People having been burdened with a number of pursuits fail to recognise the efflux of time. They see the births, effete old age and deaths every day. Yet they do not bother. Such is the spell of temptation. They are possessed by the worldly tasks.
raatris sa iva punaha sa eeva divasoo, matvaa mudhaa (abudhaa) jantavoo
dhaavanty udyaminas tathaiva nibhrita praarabdha tat tat kriyaaha;
vyaapaaraih punar ukta bhuuta vishayair ittham vidhee (eevam vidhee) naamunaa
saasaareen`a kadarthitaa vayam ahoo moohaan na lajjaamahee .44
Nights recur after Days. Days recur after nights. Ignoramuses know this. Yet they start this work or that work and rush as if the world was going to get submerged. They go on repeating the things. Having been captured and enamored by this World, we lose all our shame and sense of modesty.
na dhyaatam padam iis`varasya; vidhivat samsaara vicchittayee;
svarga dvaara kavaat`a paat`ana pat`ur dharmoo api na upaarjitaha;
naarii piina payodhara uuru yugalam svapnee api naalimgitam
maatuhu keevalam eeva yauvana vana ccheedee kut`haaraa vayam .45
The poet is remorseful about his birth. His birth was futile. It worked like an axe for the sole purpose of breaking the forest of his mother's youthfulness. According to Indian philosophical lore, a person has to achieve four goals in life: 1. Dharma (righteousness and adherence to ethics). 2. Artha (Earning money). 3. Kaama (Fulfil desire and lust as a householder). 4. Mooksha (Strive for delieverance from the terrible cycle of births, old age and death.
The poet regrets that he did nothing. He did not meditate on the Supreme Spirit, to get relieved from the bondage of births and deaths. He did not perform the ritualistic worships and sacrifices (Dharma) which help in getting the gates of Heaven opened. He did not firmly embrace the youthful breasts of young ladies at least in sleep and dreams (Kaama). Thus his life became listless and purposeless.
na abhyastaa prativaadi vrinda damanii vidyaa viniitoocitaa
khad`gaagraihi kari kumbha piit`ha dalanair naakam na niitam yas`aha;
kaantaa komala pallavaadhara rasaha piito na candroodayee
taarun`yam gatam eeva nishphalam ahoo s`uunyaalayee diipavat .46
The poet compares his failed life to a lamp lit in an empty house, which is wasted.
The poet laments: 1. He did not learn and earn the erudition required to conquer scholars round the world. 2. He did not acquire the skills of warfare, (particularly fencing) to kill the enemies (compared to elephants) and be known throughout the world. 3. He did not sip the juice from the lips of women on moonlit evenings.
vidyaa naadhigataa kalamka rahitaa vittaa ca noopaarjitam;
s`us`ruushaapi samaahiteena manasaa pitroor na sampaaditaa;
aalolaayata locanaaha priyatamaaha svapnee api na aalimgitaaha
kaalo'yam para pimd`a loolupatayaa kaakair iva preeritaha.47

The poet is full of repentence. He laments: 1. Spent my life like a crow engaged in devoring cuds of food offered by others. (It is a custom in India to feed crows with the balls of food made for the ancestors during funeral and annual ceremonies). 2. Did not learn clean education. 3. Nor, did he earn money. 3. Did not nurse and serve aged elders with a stable mind. 4. Nor did he embrace his beloved (described as one with round circling and oscillating eyes).
vayaam yeebhyo jaataas` cira parigataa eeva khalu tee;
samam yaih samvriddhah smriti vishayataam tee api gamitaha.
idaaniim eetee smaha pratidivasam aasanna patanaa;
gataas tulyaavasthaam sikatila nadii tiira tarubhihi .48
The poet compares his life to a plant on the sand banks of a river. Ravaged by the river currents, the tree hangs in a precarious state, ready at any time to collapse into the river. The poet recalls that it is long time since his parents passed away; his friends also passed away. He alone remains awaiting the day of destruction.
aayur varsha s`atam nrun`am parimitam;
raatrau tad ardham gatam;
tasya ardhasya parasya ca ardham aparaa baalatva vriddhatvayooho;
s`eesham vyaadhi viyooga duhkha sahitam seevaadibhir niiyatee
jiivee vaari taramga camcala taree saukhyam kutaha praan`inaam? .49
The poet questions: 'Where is the happiness for persons?' The total life span is limited to 100 years. Half of it, i.e. 50 years is lost in nights. In the remaining 50 years, 25 years is lost in childhood, adolescence and old age. Remaining 25 years are to be distributed among 1. serving for livelihood; 2. sickness 3. separation from the beloved. Life is un-dependable like waves of a Sea. Thus, where is the happiness for Creatures?
kshan`am baalo bhuutvaa kshan`am api yuvaa kaama rasikaha;
kshan`am vittair hiinaha;
kshan`am api ca sampuurn`a vibhavaha;
jaraa jiirn`air amgair nat`a iva balii mamd`ita tanur
narah samsaaraantee vis`ati yamadhaaniiya vanikaam .50
The poet compares a human to an actor on a stage. The actor takes up several roles. Once, he will be a boy. Another time, lustful youth. The third time, he will be a poor person. The fourth time he may be very affluent. Then he may take up the role of an old person. Ultimately he goes behind the screen (curtain) of Death.

tvam raajaa vayam api upaasita guru; pragna abhimaana unnataaha;
khyaatas tvam vibhavair, yas`aamsi kavayoo dikshu pratanvanti naha;
ittham maanada na ati duuram (another version: maana dhanaati duuram)ubhayoor api aavayor antaram
yadi asmaasu paraangmukhoo asi vayam api eekaantatoo nis spruhaaha.51
The poet compares himself (an ascetic) with the King and addresses him. You shine in regal glory. We are equal to you by virtue of the scholarship and talent filled glory obtained by us serving the preceptor. You are known by your affluence and splendor in your kingdom. Our fame is in knowledge, which is spread by poets all over the earth. Thus, there is not much distance and variance between us. If you ignore us, we living alone without any cognition of what happens outside, cannot develop any affinity and attraction towards you.
arthaanaam iis`ishee tvam; vayam api ca giraam iis`mahee (vidmahee) yaavad artham;
s`uuras tvam; vaadi darpa vya upas`amana vidhaava kshayam paat`avam naha;
seevantee tvam dhanaad`hyaam (dhanaamdhaam)mati mala hatayee; maam api s`rotu kaamaa,
may api aasthaa na tee ceet tvayi mama nitaraam eesha raajann anaasthaa (sutaryaameesha raajan gatoosmi) .52
Oh King! You are the Lord of the Wealth. We are the Lords of sciences and knowledge. You have physical strength and valor. We have the strength of overpowering the argumentative pride of debators.
Those who want money surround and serve you. Those who want to hear soul purifying words approach us. If you are not interested in us, we are also not interested in you. Now itself, I shall leave.
vayam iha paritusht`aa valkalais, tvam dukuulaihi;
sama iha paritooshoo, nirvis`eeshoo vis`eeshaha;
sa tu bhavatu daridroo, yasya trishn`aa vis`aalaa,
manasi ca paritusht`ee
koo arthavaan! koo daridraha .53

The poet continues to address the Kings. The comparison continues. 'We wear rags. You wear silk costumes. Satisfaction is equal to both of us. Despite it, a person who has an insatiable greed, will remain poor. When there is internal contentment, what is poverty? What is prosperity?'
phalam alam as`anaaya, svaadu paanaaya tooyam,
kshitir api s`ayanaartham, vaasasee valkalam ca .
nava ghana madhupaana bhraanta sarveendriyaan`aam
avinayam anumantum nootsahee durjanaanaam .54
The poet refuses to budge and remain oppressed to the arrogance of neo-rich (noveau riche). He says: 'For us, it will be sufficient if we have fruits to eat and water to drink. Rags are adequate to wear. Bare earth is enough for us to sleep on. We are not enthusiastic to remain docile to flamboyant wealthy parvenu.'
as`niim ahi vayam bhikshaam aas`aavaaso vasiim ahi .
s`ayiim ahi mahii prisht`hee kurviim ahi kim iis`varaihi.55
'Food for us is the alms. The eight directions (East, South East, South, South West, West, North West, North, North East) are our clothes. (A truly renounced person wears nothing). The plateau of Earth is our bed. What we have to do with kings!'
na nat`aa,
na vit`aa,
na gaayakaa,
na ca sabhyeetara vaada cumcavaha;
nripam iikshitum atra kee vayam stana bhaaraan namitaa na yooshitaha .56
The poet abhors seeing kings. 'We are not stage actors. We are not paramours or companions of prostitutes. We are not singers. We are not entertainers of obscene tongue. We are not whores having bodies laden with heavy breasts. What have we to do with kings to see them?'
vipula hridayair iis`air eetat jagat janitam puram
vidhritam aparair dattam ca anyair vijitya trin`am yathaa;
iha hi bhuvanaani anyair dhiiraas` caturdas`a bhumgjatee,
katipaya pura svaamyee pumsaam, ka eesha mada jvaram.57
In the following four verses, the poet castigates the Kings for their arrogance and wickedness. {Comment: Most of the qualities attributed by the Poet to Kings of his time, apply to politicians of 21st Century.}In this verse he compares the Great Emperors of yore with the city rulers of his time. He says: 'The emperors built the world, ruled it with patience, and gifted all the conquered territories to seekers. All these fourteen worlds Comment: Hindu belief that there are fourteen worlds (or three worlds as convenient)are being enjoyed by some worthy kings. Then why is it that barons of small places suffer from the fever of arrogance?'
abhuktaayam yasyaam kshan`am api na yaatam nripa s`atair,
bhuvas tasyaa laabhee ka iva bahumaanaha kshiti bhritaam?
tad ams`asyaapi ams`ee tad avayava lees`ee api patayoo
vishaadee kartavyee vidadhati jad`aaha pratyuta mudam.58
The poet discusses the psychology of the small time rulers. He says: 'The Earth and the lands have been being ruled by hundreds of kings incessantly, succeeding one another. Whenever a person becomes king of a territory it is only a left over of some other past dead king. What glory does a new king get? Instead of feeling unhappy, he feels elated. What a fools are they!'
mrit pimd`oo jala reekhayaa valayita sarvoo api ayam nasv an`uhu;
svaams`iikritya sa eeva samyuga s`atai raagnaa gan`aa bhumgjatee;
yee dadyur, dadatoo athavaa kim aparam kshudraa daridraa bhris`am,
dhig dhik taan purushaadhamaan dhanakan`aam vaamchanti teebhyoo api yee.59
The poet continues to criticise the kings: 'The kingdoms are like mud balls surrounded by water (seas). They are too minuscule and small. This earth is divided and subdivided into small splinters. Rulers fight wars with one another, share and reshare, and enjoy their fiefs. (The poet wonders) Will these rogues gift anything to others? Even if they give, it will be too little. Hey! How obnoxious will it be to approach kings for anything?'
sa jaataha koo api aasiin madana ripun`aa muurdhni dhavalam;
kapaalam yasyooccair vinihitam alamkaara vidhayee;
nribhihi praan`a traan`a pravan`a matibhihi kais`cid adhunaa
namadbhihi kaha pumsaam ayam atula darpa jvara bharaha.60
This verse has deep meaning. According to legends, Lord Shiva begs using skull as bowl. Whose skull does S'iva use? He uses the skull of his best devotee, who deserves his grace. Such person's life is fulfilled. Now, the poet condemns the fever of arrogance affecting the small time rulers whom mendicants approach for filling their bellies and save themselves.'

pareeshaam ceetamsi pratidivasam aaraadhya bahudhaa,
prasaadam kim neetum vis`asi hridaya klees`a kalitam (kalilam)
prasannee tvayy antaha svayamudita cintaaman`i gan`ee
vimukta samkalpaha kim abhilashitam pushyati na tee.61
In this chapter, the poet addresses his own mind. The object is to control it.
The poet's mind (in other words human minds) is engaged in studying the minds of others, so as to delight them by engaging in pleasing conversation. The poet wants to stop that and he wants his mind to become pure like divine crystal. The poet says: 'Oh mind! Why do you stretch and torture yourselves by trying to study the minds of others and pleasing them? Keep your self clean like a divine crystal. When you are pure, won't you shed the sense of desiring and proposing? Won't your tasks get fulfilled automatically in a fitting manner?
satyaam eeva trilokii sariti hara s`iras` cumbiniivac chat`aayam
sad vrittim kalpayantyam bat`a vit`apa bhavair valkalaha sat phalais` ca;
koo ayam vidvaan vipatti jvara janita rujaatiiva duhkhaasikaanam
vaktram viiksheeta dusthee yadi hi na vibhriyaat svee kut`umbee anukampaam.
Not in some versions.
paribhramasi kim mudhaa (vruthaa) kvacana citta vis`raamyataam
svayam bhavati yad yathaa bhavati tat tathaa na anyathaa .
atiitam ananusmaran na api ca bhaavya samkalpayan
natarkita samaagama anubhavaami bhogana aham .62

The poet continues to address his mind. The poet is deterministic. He wants to be passive, accepting whatever happens. "Oh mind! Why do you wander uselessly? Rest somewhere! Whatever is destined to happen will happen, in any case. Does not happen otherwise. Even if you struggle, there will be no result. I shall not plan future action. I shall not propose anything. I shall accept whatever happens and bear the results with contentment.{Translator's Comment: On practical considerations, we may disagree with the pessimism of the poet. Yet, as a theme this is a masterpiece.}
eetasmaad virameendriyaartha gahanaad aayaasakaad aas`raya
s`reeyoo maargam as`eesha duhkha s`amana vyaapaara daksham
svaatmii (s`aamtam) bhaavam upaihi santyaja nijaam kalloola lolaam gatim (another version: na tarkita gamaa gamaan anubhavsva iha)
maa bhuuyo bhaja bhamguraam bhava ratim ceetaha prasiidaadhunaa .63
The poet is addressing his mind: 'Withdraw! Refrain from the path of sensual enjoyment, as it is extremely tedious and tiresome. Adopt the path of peace. Tread the path of righteousness. Abandon the present fickle behaviour. Do not again be engaged to the desire for this unreliable mundane world and family life. Be pure and joyful.'
moohaa maarjaya! taam upaarjaya ratim candraardha cuud`aaman`auhu;
ceetah svarga taramgiin`ii tat`a bhuvaam aasamgam amgiikuru;
koo vaa viicishu budbudeeshu ca, tat`il leekhaashu ca, s`riishu (striishu) ca,
jvaalaagreeshu ca pannageeshu sarid veegeeshu ca, pratyayaha .64
The poet is pursuading his wavering mind. He is goading it. He says: 'Shed temptation. Get interested in and engaged to the
God (Lord Shiva who wears Moon in his hair locks as a jewel). Think of and accept living on the sands of the Heavenly river Ganges. Can reliance be placed on momentarily existing waves, foam, lightnings, women, tips of fire, serpants, speed of rivers?'
ceetas` cintaya maa ramaam, sakrud imaam asthaayiniim, aasthayaa
bhuupaala bhrukut`ii kut`ii viharan`a vyaapaara pan`yaamganaam ,
kanthaa kamcukitaaha pravis`ya bhavana dvaaraan`i vaaraan`asii
rathyaa pamktishu paan`i paatra patitaa bhikshaam apeekshaamahee .65
The poet is disgusted with the Goddess of Wealth. He compares her to a prostitute who dwells on the spot between the two eye brows of kings. He tells his mind: '(Oh mind!) Consciously never think of the Goddess of Wealth! She is unstable. It is mobile. It dwells between the two eye brows of kings. I prefer to beg in the city of Varan`asi (Kaas`i) wearing rags and survive on the alms collected by me at its doorsteps in my fists. '
agree giitam, sarasa kavayaha, paars`vayoor daakshin`aatyaha,
pas`caal liilaavalaya ran`itam caamara graahin`iinaam,
yadi asti eevaa kuru bhava rasaasvaadanee lampat`atvam
no ceet ceetaha pravis`a sahasaa nirvikalpee samaadhau.66
The poet offers two choices to his mind. He tells his mind: '1. If you have sweet music before you, connoisseure southern poets on two sides, the bangle sounds of fanning women behind, become an enjoyer of the juices of mundane pleasures. 2. Else, enter the State of Deep Meditation without delay.'
praaptaah s`riyah sakala kaama dudhaas (dughaas) tataha kim?
nyastam padaa s`irasi vidvishatam tataha kim?
sampaaditaaha (sammaanitaaha) pran`ayinoo vibhavais tataha kim?
kalpam sthitam tanubhrutaam tanavas (tanubhih) tataha kim? .67
The poet has four questions in the four lines of the verse. He questions the futility of having external fulfilments. He asks his mind: 'What is the use of having riches and assets which satisfy all the desires? What is the use of having all the enemies defeated and heads bowed down? What is the use of satisfying friends with the glamorous glory of wealth? What is the use of surviving and living till the Great Disaster and Destruction?Every thing is in reality purposeless.
bhaktir bhavee maran`a janma bhayam hridistham
sneehoo na, bandhushu na, manmathajaa vikaaram
saasarga doosha rahitaa vijayam (vijanaa) vanaantaa,
vairaagyam asti, kim itaha param arthaniiyam? .68
The poet continues his internal persuasion. He tries to convince his mind. He says: 'What is there for a person to long for? 1. Devotion of God 2. fear of the cycle of births and deaths. 3. Absence of love and attachment to wife and children 4. Absence of sexual urges and commotions 5. Living in unmanned forests, so as not to be tainted by movement with worldly people.'
tasmaad anantam ajaram paramam vikaasi
tad brahma cintaya kim eebhir asad vikalpaih?
yasyaanushamgin`a imee bhuvanaadhipatya
bhogaadayaha kripan`a loka mataa bhavanti .69
The poet advises his mind to think of the Supreme Spirit which is infinite, endless, and the best. For a person who is engaged with the Supreme Spirit, the Lordship of all the fourteen worlds will appear to be a foolish choice. Hence What for are all the temporary pleasures?'
paataalam aavis`asi, yaasi nabhoo vilamghya,
dingmamd`alam bhramasi maanasa caapaleena;
bhraantyaapi jaatu vimalam katham aatma niinam (liinam)
tad brahma na saasarasi nirvritim eeshi yeena .70
The poet addresses his mind: '1. You will enter the nether world.2. You will leap the sky. 3. You will revolve in a grip of fickleness around the cosmos. But you will never think of meditate on the Pure Supreme Spirit which will relieve you from terrible bondage of births and deaths.

kim veedam smritibhihhi puraan`a pat`hanam s`aastrair mahaa vistaraam;
svarga graama kut`ii nivaasa phaladaam karma kriyam vibhramam;
muktvaikaa bhava duhkha bhaara racanaa vidhvamsa kaalaanalam
svaatmaananda pada pravees`a kalanam, s`eeshair van`ik vrittayaha.71
The poet compares what is permanent and what is transient. He says: 'What is the use of studying scriptures like Vedas, Smritis, Puranas (semi-histories of Gods)and other voluminous books? What is the use of performing ritualistic sacrifices? They can only entitle a person to live in a cottage in heaven.(This abode is also temporary. A person has to return to Earth once the accumulated credit balance of virtue from the good deeds is exhausted). Deliverance alone is like a wild fire which can destroy the miseries arising out of mundane worries. Except the bliss of the soul by virtue of its union with the spirit, all else are just ordinary activities of a trader.
naayam tee samayo rahasyam adhunaa nidraati naatho yadi
sthitvaa drakshyati kupyati prabhur iti dvaareeshu yeeshaa vacau .
ceetas taan apahaaya yaahi bhavanaa deevasya vis`vees`itur
nirdauvaarika nirdayokty aparusham nausoma s`arma pradam .(This verse is not present in some versions)
yatoo meeruhu s`riimaan nipatati yugaantaagni valitaha;
samudraas sushyanti pracura makara graaha nilayaaha.
dharaa gacchati antaa dharan`ii dhara paadair api dhrutaa;
s`ariiree kaa vaartaa karikalabha karn`aagra capalee.72.
At the time of the Great Disaster,the Great Meeru Mountain perishes. The Oceans which are abodes of Great Fish and Whales dry up. The Earth which is being born by the Foothills of Great Mountains, will come to an end.What news can be there about this body whose existence is as brief as the evermoving tip of an ear lobe of an elephant?
gaatram samkucitam, gatir vigalitaa, bhrasht`haa ca dantaaval`ir,
drisht`ir nashyati, vardhatee badhirataa, vaktram ca laalaayatee;
vaakyam naadriyatee ca baandhava janoo, bhaaryaa na s`us`ruushatee
haa kasht`am purushasya jiirn`a vayasaha, putroo api amitraayatee .73
The poet describes the evils and hazards of old age. He enlists the future condition of the body and the likely behaviour of relatives. 1. Voice shrinks and shivers. 2. Movement becomes shaky. 3. The rows of teeth are disturbed. 4. Vision gets impaired. 5. Deafness increases. 6. Saliva flows out from the mouth all the time. 7. Relatives do not like the words. 8. Wife does not nurse the ailing husband. How difficult it is for an old man? Even sons become enemies.
varn`am sitam s`irasi viikshya s`iroruhaan`aam;
sthaanaa jaraa paribhavasya tadaa (jhaditi) pumaamsam (yadeeva pumsaam);
aaropitaasthi s`atakam (s`akalam) parihritya yaanti;
camd`aala kuupam iva duurataram tarn`yaha.74
The poet describes the behaviour of young women when they see a old man. When they see his white hair, his flesh maligned by old age, consider him as useless and move away from him, just as people keep distance from a well surrounded by bones near a slaughterhouse.
yaavat svastham idam s`ariiram arujam (kal`eebara gruham), yaavatc ca duuree jaraa,
yaavatc ceendriya s`aktir apratihataa, yaavat kshayo na ayushaha;
aatma s`reeyasi taavad eeva vidushaa kaaryaha prayatnoo mahaan
sandiiptee bhavanee tu kuupa khananam pratyudyamaha kiidris`aha.75
The poet wants to take up striving for deliverance of soul before it is too late. When oldage sets in it will be like digging a well, when the house has caught fire. The attempt for self-deliverance must be made as long as the body remains healthy and disease-free, as long as the body is away from old age, as long as the energy remains undiminished, and as long as the longevity remains undwindled.
tapasyantaha santaha kim adhinivasaamah sura nadiim;
gun`odaaraan daaraa nuta paricaraamah savinayam;
pibaamah s`aastraughaa nuta vividha kaavyaamrita rasaa?
na vidmaha kim kurmaha katipaya nimeeshaayushi janee.76
The poet has three choices. Life is of limited duration. The poet is unable to choose what to do? 1. Do penance on the banks of the heavenly river Ganga. 2. Cohabit with co-operative and loving wife. 3. Drink the nectar of various scriptures and works of great poets. The problem is the limited time for completing the task.
duraaraadhyaas` caamii turaga cala cittaha kshitibhujo,
vayam tu sthuuleecchah sumahati (sthuuleecchanuhati) ca phale baddha manasaha;
jaraa deeham, mrityur harati dayitam jiivitam idam,
sakhee! na anyatc chreeyau jagati vidushee anyatra tapasaha.77
The poet addresses his mind as his friend. The poet says: 'Oh friend! The best option available for a wise person is to do penance. Old age is robbing the body. Death is stealing the life. Ambitions and desires are too heavy,high and unmanageable. They cannot be fulfilled by serving the rulers of the lands, whose minds are like unruly horses, and are difficult to please.
maanee mlaayini, khamd`itee ca vasuni, vyartham prayaatee arthini,
kshin`ee bandhujanee, gatee parijanee, nasht`ee s`anair yauvanee;
yuktam keevalam eetad eeva sudhiyaam yat jahnu kanyaa payah-
puuta graava giriindra kandara tat`ii kunjoo nivaasaha kvacit.78
What a person should do in a pitiable condition imposed by oldage? The poet answers the question. First, description of the effects of oldage: 1. Honor goes. 2. Wealth goes. 3. Beggars and seekers of help who approach him return empty handed. 4. Number of relatives falls. 5. Friends and companions leave. 6. The youthful stamina is lost. {Translator's comment: The phrase used by the poet here is a chain of golden words: jahnu kanyaa payah puutagraava giriimdra kamdara tat`ii kumjoo nivaasaha: Dwelling in the valleys of hills purified by the waters of the sacred river Ganga (jahnu kanya= daughter of the sage Jahnu).
ramyaas` candra mariicayas, trin`avatii ramyaa vanaanta sthalii,
ramyam saadhu samaagamaagata sukham, kaavyeeshu ramyaah kathaaha,
koopoopaahita baashpa bindu taralam ramyam priyaayam mukham,
sarvam ramyam anityataam upagatee cittee na kimcit punaha.79
What was beautiful, aesthetic and enjoyable becomes ephemeral and unenjoyable for a discerning mind. We need an awareness of the transience of the pleasures.
ramyam harmya talam na kim vasatayee? s`raavyam na geeyaadikam?
kim vaa praan`asamaa samaagama sukham naivaadhika priitayee?
kintu bhraanta patamga kshapavanavyaalola diipaamkura
cchaayaa camcalam aakalayya sakalam santoo vanaantam gataha.80
Won't mansions be comfortable to live in? Won't music be melodious to listen? Won't union with a beloved be delightful? Everything gives us pleasure. Here, the poet uses a beautiful simile and explains why ascetics leave everything and go to forests for engaging themselves in penance. When an insect tempted by the lamp revolves round the flame, the insect may fall in it extinguishing it. During the revolutions, the flame will be flickering. It is so unstable and unreliable. The pleasures (living in mansions, listening to melodies, uniting with the beloved) are are also unstable.

aa samsaat (asamsaaram) tribhuvanam idam cinvataam taat taadrum
naivaasmaakam nayana padaviim s`rootra maargam gatoo vaa .
yoo ayam dhattee vishaya karin`ii gaad`ha guud`haabhimaana (ruud`haabhimaana)
kshiin`asyaantah karan`a karin`ahs samyamaalaana (samyamaanaaya) liilaam.81
The poet uses a beautiful simile. Human mind is compared to a male elephant in a rut. Sensual pleasures are female elephant. The male elephant is behind the female elephants. Mind is after the sensual pleasures. Now, a post is required to bind the male elephant with a chain. The person who can control his mind is like the post. The poet is unable to see or hear about at least one such post-like person in spite of prolonged search in all the three worlds. The phrase used by the poet 'vishaya karin`ii gaad`haabhimaana kshibasyaaamtahkaran`a karin`a samyamaanaaya liilam' is a masterpiece.
yad eetat svacchandam viharan`am, akaarpan`yam as`anam,
sahaaryaihi samvaasaha, s`rutam upas`amaika vrata phalam,
manoo manda spandam bahir api; cirasyaapi vimrus`an
na jaanee kasyaishaa parin`atir udaarasya tapasaha .82
The poet expresses happiness about the positive and qualitative features of the present life as an ascetic. They are: 1. Free and unfettered movement (contrast: confinement when in the court of a king with rules and regulations). 2. Food uncontaminated with hate and wickedness. 3. Friendship and cohabitation with reverable ascetics. 4. Peaceful knowledge 5. Mind remaining in Union and not deviating towards matters outside. The poet wonders that having all these great things were the result of which past great penance. How to identify it?
jiirn`aa eeva manorathaas` ca hridayee, yaatam ca tad (jaraam) yauvanam,
hantaamgeeshu gun`aas` bandhya phalataam yaataa gun`agniair vinaa;
kim yuktam sahasaa abhyupaiti balavaan kaalaha kritaantoo kshamii,
haa! gnaatam madanaantakaamghri yugalam muktvaasti na anyaa gatihi.83
The poet repents for the time lost in search of pleasures. He enumerates: 1. Desires got digested on their own in the mind. 2. Youthfulness degenerated during youth itself. 3. Virtues became futile as there were no wiser connoisseurs to appreciate them. Now what is the best and the fittest thing to be done? The Death is ready to pounce upon. The Poet himself declares 'Now I know! By knowing the lotus feet of the Slayer of Lust (Lord S`iva according to mythology reduced Manmatha, the God of Love to ashes), there will be deliverance. There is no other way.
mahees`varee vaa jagataam adhiis`varee,
janaardanee vaa jagad antaraatmani;
na vastu bheeda pratipattir asti mee,
tathaapi bhaktis tarun`eendu s`eekharee .84
'S`iva, the Great master of this Universe or Vishn`u the Supreme Spirit of this Universe, there is no difference of content for me. Yet, I prefer Siva.'Comment: When Bhartruhari wrote his verses Christianity or Islam has not entered India. Bhartruhari would not have found distinction among Siva, Vishnu, Christ or Alla. His preference for Siva seems to be for the reason of both being ascetics. Siva wears ash. Snakes and moon are his jewels. Begs with skull as bowl. Sleeps in a graveyard. Wears skins. Siva meditates and does penance. Vishnu being the husband of the Goddess of Wealth, is a God of riches. Historically also, the Gods Rama, Krishna and Vishnu are later entries chronologically.
sphurat sphaara jyotsnaadhavalita talee kvaapi pulinee
sukhaasiinaha s`aanta dhvanishu rajaniishu dyu saritaha;
bhavaabhoogodvignaahs s`iva s`iva s`iveety uccavacasaha
kadaa syaamaanandoomtgata bahul`a baashpaakula (phluta) drus`aha.85
The poet seeks the ECSTATIC STATE of uniting with S`iva. The phrases used by him are superb. 1. Sitting comfortably. 2. Peaceful sounds. 3. On the moonlit sands of the River Ganga 4. Night well lit with moon's rays. 5. In that ecstatic state, repeatedly uttering 'S`iva S`iva S`iva', in a high tone. 6. Tears of joy flowing from eyes.
mahaadeevoo deevahs sarid api ca saisham sura sarid
guhaa eevaagaaraa vasanam api taa eeva haritaha;
suhridam kaalooyam vratam idam adainya vratam idam
kiyad vaa vakshyaamo vat`a vit`apa eevaastu dayitam.
(Not found in some versions)
vitiirn`ee sarvasvee tarun`a karun`aa puurn`a hridayaaha;
smarantahs samsaaree vigun`a parin`aamaam vidhi gatim;
vayam pun`yaaran`yee parin`ata s`aratc candra kiran`aas
triyaamaa neesyaamo hara caran`a cintaika s`aran`aaha.86
The poet wonders when he will spend his time meditating on S`iva on moonlit nights in sacred forests, after distributing all his possessions to the needy with a compassion-filled heart and forgetting the past unhappiness of the mundane world.
kadaa vaaraan`asyaam amara tat`ii niiroodhasi vasan,
vasaanaha kaupiinam s`irasi nidadhaanoomjali put`am;
ayee gauriinaatha! tripurahara s`ambhoo trinayana!
prasiideeti aakros`an nimisham iva neeshyaami divasaan.87
The poet longs for the days when he will 1. live in Kaas`i (Varanasi) on the banks of river Ganga 2. Wearing rags 3. Folding hands well above the head 4. Calling Gauriinathaa (Lord of Gauri!) Tripuraharaa (Slayer of the Demon of Three Cities)! Sambho (S`ambhoo - Doer of good!)Trinayana! (Three eyed!) Prasiidee! (Protect me!) and spend his days like minutes (fast).
udyaaneeshu vicitra bhoojana vidhis tiivraatitiivraa tapaha;
kaupiinaavaran`am suvastram; amitam bhikshaat`anam mamd`anam;
aasannaa maran`am ca mamgala; samam yasyaa samutpadyatee
tam kaas`iim parihritya hanta vibudhair anyatra kim sthiiyatee?
The poet questions: Why should wise persons leave Kaasi (Kashi)? No reason. Reasons for not leaving: 1. The most rigorous method of penance is dining in forests and gardens. 2. Rags are good robes. 3. Ample food by begging for alms. 4. Death in Kas`i is auspicious.
snaatvaa gaamgaihi payoobhis s`uci kusuma phalair arcayitvaa vibhoo tvam
dhyeeyee dhyaanaa nivees`ya kshiti dhara kuhara graava paryamka muulee;
aatmaaraamaha phalams`ii guru vacana ratas tvat prasaadaat smaraaree,
duhkham mookshyee kadaaham sama kara caran`ee pumsi seevaasamuttham.88
Oh Lord! When will I get rid of the misery generated out of serving a human? Bathing in the sacred waters of Ganga, adorning and worshipping you with flowers and fruits, meditating on you, sitting in a mountain cave, satisfying my hunger with fruits, recalling the words of the preceptor, when will I get your grace and be free from the sin of my past servility to humans?
eekaakii nisprihaa s`aantaha paan`ipaatroo, digambaraha;
kadaa s`ambhoo bhavishyaami
karma nirmuulana kshamaha.89
Oh S`iva! When will I be capable of destroying the actions and their consequences from my past births? When will I be alone, attachment and passionless, peaceful, begging using hands as bowl and making the horizon as clothes (naked)?
paan`im paatrayataam, nisarga s`ucinaa bhaikshiia santushyataam,
yatra kvaapi nishiidatam bahu trin`am vis`vam muhuhu pas`yataam;
atyaagee api tanor akhamd`a paramaanandaavabodha spris`aa
madhvaa koo api s`iva prasaada sulabhas sampatsyatee yoginaam .90
An Ascetic in Union with S`iva gets deliverance. Concomitants: 1. Using palm as bowl for begging 2. Being contented with natural alms 3. Sitting somewhere or the other. 4. Viewing the world as a blade of straw. 5. Living in a State of Union with the Supreme Spirit and the consequent happiness, albeit not shedding this physical body.

kaupiinam s`ata khamd`a jarjarataram, kanthaa punas taadrus`ii,
nais`cintyam, nirapeeksha bhaikshyam as`anam, nidraa s`mas`aanee vanee,
svaatantryeen`a niramkus`am viharan`am svaantam pras`aantam sadaa,
sthairyam yoga mahotsavee api ca yadi trailokya raajyeena kim.91
The poet is ready to forego even the Lordship of the three worlds, for the sake of the Festival of Union with the Supreme Spirit. What are the characteristics of Yoga Festival? 1. Loin cloth torn into hundred pieces 2. The shawl is in similar condition 3. No worries and anxieties 4. Food received as alms without asking 5. Sleep in grave or a forest. 6. Freedom and unfettered movement 7. Ever peaceful mind 8. Stability and poise.
brahmaamd`a mamd`alii maatram kim lobhaaya manasvinaha;
s`apharii sphuritee naabdheeh (naabdhihi) kshubdhoo na khalu jaayatee.92.
If a female fish dances and leaps in an Ocean, the Ocean does not get tumultous. The mind of an ascetic in Union does not quiver even if the Universe were accrue to him.
maatar Lakshmi! bhajasva kamcid aparam mat kaamkshin`ii maa sma bhuur
bhogeeshu spruhayaal`avas tava vas`ee kaa nispruhaan`aam asi;
sadyaha syuuta palaas`a patra put`ikaa paatree pavitrii kritair
bhikshaa vastubhir eeva samprati vayam vrittim samiihaamahee.93
The poet salutes and addresses the Goddess of Wealth: 'Mother Lakshmii! Do not desire (to stay with) me. Those who want luxuries and pleasures will be obedient to you. What work do the pessimistic non chalant persons have with you? We want to carry along the journey of our life, stitching (palaasa plant) leaf plates as and when hungry and begging for sacred alms.
mahi ramyaa s`ayyaa prithvii vipulam upadhaanam, bhuja lataa
vitaanam ca aakaas`am, vyajanam anukuulooyam anilaha;
s`aratc candroo diipoo virati vanitaa samga muditaha
sukhii s`aantah s`eetee muniratanu bhuutir nrupa iva.94
The poet again compares ascetics with kings.
How kings conjugate with women: Silk beds, pillows, silk nets and curtains on the frame of the cot, sandalwood pastes, incenses and scents, Special night lamp. Every comfort and luxury in Union.
How ascetics conjugate with with the beloved 'deliverance': Earth is the bed. Shoulders are the pillows. Sky is the ceiling frame for hanging mosquito nets and curtains. Breezes are the scents. Moon is the lamp. In this comforts, Ascetics will have Union with the Supreme Spirit.
bhikshaasii, jana madhya samga rahitam, svaayatta ceesht`aha, sadaa
haanaa daana virakta maarga nirataha kas`cit tapasvii sthitaha .
rathyaakiirn`a vis`iirn`a jiirn`a vasanair sampraapta kanthaasanaha (aasyuuta kanthaadharoo)
nirmamoo (nirmaano) nirahamkriti s`ama sukhaabhoogaika baddha spruhaha.95
Somewhere the King of Ascetics exists. His characteristic traits: 1. Though he stays in the middle of people for the sake of alms, he does not have any attachments and links with them. 2. He behaves fully as per the dictates of his conscience. 3. He adheres to a path of abhorrence of giving and taking things. 4. He wears rags found on streets. 5. He covers himself with a sheet stitched of such pieces. 6. He does not have any sense of I (ego) or 'my'. 7. Immersed in the comfort of peace arising from the Union with the Supreme Spirit.
camd`aaloo kim ayam? dvijaatir athavaa s`uudroo atha? kim taapasaha?
kim vaa tattva viveeka pees`ala matir yogiis`varaha koo api kim?
iti utpanna vikalpa jalpa mukharair aabhaashyamaan`aa janair
na kruddhaupathi naiva tusht`a manasoo yaanti svayam yoginaha .96
Those who see the ascetic on the path, will be wondering who this person is! Is he an outcast? Is he a Priest? Is he of a low caste? A person doing penance? A scholarly saint who can distinguish between strains of principles of philosophy? Who ever he is? The passersby will be estimating and commenting about him. But the ascetic himself will not get irritated and in a contented and serine mode he proceeds.
himsaa s`uunyam, ayatna labhyam as`anaa dhaatraa marut kalpitam
vyaalaanaam. pas`avas trin`aamkura bhujas tusht`ah sthalii s`aayinaha;
samsaaraarn`ava lamghana kshama dhiyaam vrittihi krutaa saa nrun`aam
taam anveeshayataam prayaanti satatam sarvee samaaptim gun`n`aaha.97
The creator made 'air' as food for snakes. It does not involve violence. {Comment: Erroneous belief in Ancient India that snakes live on air}. The creator made earth as bed for cattle. He fixed grass as their food. The Creator gave intellect to humans. For the discerning wise persons, who want to cross the Sea of Mundane Activities, the ideal survival is through alms. A person frees himself from the effect of three qualities associated (Satva, Rajas, Tamoo) with other food.
gamgaa tiiree hima giri s`ilaa baddha padmaasanasya
brahma dhyaanaabhyasana vidhinaa yoga nidraa gatasya .
kim tair bhaavyam mama sudivasair yatra tee nirvis`amkaaha
kamd`uuyantee jarat`ha harin`aa svaamgam amgam madiiyee.98
This is the climax in the life of any ascetic. The poet longs: 'When the golden days will come, of my sitting in lotus posture on a stone slab of the sacred Ganga Valley, immersing myself in a state of yogic-sleep (sleep like state of being in Union with the Supreme Spirit) and the deer in the forest scratching their itching bodies with my body fearlessly?
jiirn`aa kamthaa tataha kim sitam amala pat`am pat`hita suutram tataha kim
eekam bhaaryaa tataha kim haya kari sugan`air aavrutoo vaa tataha kim.
bhaktaa bhuktam tataha kim kadas`anam athavaa vaasaraantee tataha kim
vyakta jyotir na vaantarmathita bhava bhayam vaibhavam vaa tataha kim.
=This verse is not found in some versions== Here, the poet shoes indifference. He expresses his unconcern: Rags or new robes? Wife alone as companion - or horses, elephants and armies? Delicacies or stale food?
What is the use of all the glory of wealth if lights of self realisation do not glow within the heart.'
paan`ihi paatram pavitram bhraman`a parigatam bhaikshyam akshayyam annam
vistiirn`am vastram aas`aa das`akam acapalam (apamalam) talpam asvalpam urviim,
yeeshaam nausamgataamgii karan`a parin`ata svaanta santoshin`as tee
dhanyaah sanyasta dainya vyatikara nikaraaha karma nirmuulayanti.99
The poet answers the question who can destroy their accumulated good and bad deeds from their previous births. Those fulfilled persons who 1. have their own hands as bowl for collecting alms 2. nectar like food collected by visiting households;3. Robes are the directions and horizons (naked) 4. Bed is the Mother Earth. 5. Live unattached lives. 6. Free themselves from temptation.
trailookyaadhipatitvam eeva virasam yasmin mahaas`aasanee
tal labdhvaasana vastra maana ghat`anee bhoogee ratim maa krithaha.
bhoogaha koo api sa eeka eeva paramoo nityooditaa jrimbhan`ee
yat svaadaad virasam bhavanti visayaas trailookya raajyaadayaha.
maatar meedini, taata maaruti, sakhee teejas subandhoo jala,
bhraatar vyooma nibaddha eesha bhavataam antyaha pran`aamaamjalihi;
yushmat samga vas`oopajaata sukruta sphaara sphuran nirmala
gnaanaapaasta samasta mooha mahimaa liinee para brahman`i .100
The poet is bidding farewell to the five elements of nature by saluting them. 'Mother Earth! Father Wind! Friend Fire! Relative Water! Brother Cosmos! Here are my last salutes to thee! By being the recipient of thy graces from being associated with thee, I am able to dispel all my ignorance and temptation. Now I shall be in Union with the Supreme Spirit.
s`ayyaa s`aila s`ilaa griham giri guhaa vastram tarun`am tvacaha
saaramgaha suhrudoo nanu kshiti ruhaavrittam phalam komalaaha .
yeeshaa nirjharam ambu paanam ucitam ratyai tu vidyaamganaa
manyee tee paramees`varah s`irasi yari baddho na seevaamjalihi.
dhairyam yasya pitaa, kshamaa ca jananii, s`aantis` ciram geehinii
satyam mitram idam dayaa ca bhaginii bhraataa manah samyamaha
s`ayyaa bhuumi talaa dis`oo api vasanaa jirn`aa, amritaa bhojanaa
hyeetee yasya kut`umbino vada sakhee kasmaad bhayam yoginaha.
==Not found in some versions==. Ascetics have a different set of relatives. Courage is his father. Tolerance is his mother. Peace his spouse. Truth is his friend. Kindness is his sister. Control of his mind is his brother.
His bed is Earth. His pillows are the horizons. He wears rags. His food is nectar (alms).
Whoever has all these in his family, he will have nothing to fear.
haroo vaa haaree vaa, balavati ripoo vaa suhridi vaa,
man`aha vaa losht`hee vaa,
kusuma s`ayanee vaa drushadi vaa,
trii vaa straii vaa, mama sama dris`o yaanti divasaha
kvacit pun`yaaran`yee s`iva s`iva s`ivee iti pralapataha
Not found in some versions
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